., 2012; Authors, 2010; Voogt et al., 2013). An important feature of the Focus Theory

., 2012; Authors, 2010; Voogt et al., 2013). An important feature of the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct is that social norms are posited to influence behavior when they are salient (Cialdini et al., 1990). Understanding the conditions under which descriptive versus injunctive norms are made more salient is of critical importance because it has important implications for intervention and theory. For example, if individual characteristics differentially impact the salience of different norms, then such knowledge could be used to target either descriptive or injunctive norms as part of an individually tailored intervention strategy to enhance the impact of existing norms interventions (Neighbors et al., 2008; Walters and Neighbors, 2005). We propose that individual differences in social goals will impact the degree to which an adolescent willAlcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptMeisel and ColderPageconform to descriptive and injunctive alcohol use norms. That is, social goals operate as moderators of the association between social norms and adolescent alcohol use, but these moderating effects will depend on the type of social norm as well as the specific nature of social goals. Social Goals Social goals refer to the value placed on appearing a certain way in social interactions and they are organized around a circumplex structure with two orthogonal axes that includes a vertical axis representing agentic goals and a horizontal axis representing communal goals and eight octants (Locke, 2003; Trucco et al., 2013). Agentic goals reflect a high value placed on status, respect and dominance, whereas communal goals reflect a high value placed on belongingness and closeness to one’s social networks (Ojanen et al., 2005). These goals are particularly relevant in adolescence as this is a period of increased interest in and focus on close interpersonal ties with peers (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Moreover, adolescence is a period where youth strive for independence from parents and focus on achieving mastery and competence that will bring adult privileges and status (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). The nature of agentic and communal goals suggests that they may impact the salience of descriptive and injunctive norms, and hence conformity to these norms. Our prior work has provided some initial GSK343 site support for social goals moderating the influence of social norms on intentions to drink alcohol. Authors (2010) found that social norms were stronger predictors of intentions to drink for adolescents with high levels of communal goals. This study, however, was limited by examining intentions to drink in early adolescence using a cross-sectional design, and by combining descriptive and injunctive norms into a composite score. We look to extend this work by assessing the moderational role of social goals 3-MA chemical information separately for descriptive and injunctive norms with a longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence. Moreover, the outcome of interest is alcohol use, rather than intentions to drink. Social Goals and Social Norms: A Moderational Model During adolescence, increased time and effort is spent on peer relationships and adolescents become increasingly attentive to the opinions of their peers as well as sensitive to peer approval (Collins and Steinberg, 2006; Steinberg, 2008). The increased focus on the peer context during adolescence is thought.., 2012; Authors, 2010; Voogt et al., 2013). An important feature of the Focus Theory of Normative Conduct is that social norms are posited to influence behavior when they are salient (Cialdini et al., 1990). Understanding the conditions under which descriptive versus injunctive norms are made more salient is of critical importance because it has important implications for intervention and theory. For example, if individual characteristics differentially impact the salience of different norms, then such knowledge could be used to target either descriptive or injunctive norms as part of an individually tailored intervention strategy to enhance the impact of existing norms interventions (Neighbors et al., 2008; Walters and Neighbors, 2005). We propose that individual differences in social goals will impact the degree to which an adolescent willAlcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptMeisel and ColderPageconform to descriptive and injunctive alcohol use norms. That is, social goals operate as moderators of the association between social norms and adolescent alcohol use, but these moderating effects will depend on the type of social norm as well as the specific nature of social goals. Social Goals Social goals refer to the value placed on appearing a certain way in social interactions and they are organized around a circumplex structure with two orthogonal axes that includes a vertical axis representing agentic goals and a horizontal axis representing communal goals and eight octants (Locke, 2003; Trucco et al., 2013). Agentic goals reflect a high value placed on status, respect and dominance, whereas communal goals reflect a high value placed on belongingness and closeness to one’s social networks (Ojanen et al., 2005). These goals are particularly relevant in adolescence as this is a period of increased interest in and focus on close interpersonal ties with peers (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). Moreover, adolescence is a period where youth strive for independence from parents and focus on achieving mastery and competence that will bring adult privileges and status (Collins and Steinberg, 2006). The nature of agentic and communal goals suggests that they may impact the salience of descriptive and injunctive norms, and hence conformity to these norms. Our prior work has provided some initial support for social goals moderating the influence of social norms on intentions to drink alcohol. Authors (2010) found that social norms were stronger predictors of intentions to drink for adolescents with high levels of communal goals. This study, however, was limited by examining intentions to drink in early adolescence using a cross-sectional design, and by combining descriptive and injunctive norms into a composite score. We look to extend this work by assessing the moderational role of social goals separately for descriptive and injunctive norms with a longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence. Moreover, the outcome of interest is alcohol use, rather than intentions to drink. Social Goals and Social Norms: A Moderational Model During adolescence, increased time and effort is spent on peer relationships and adolescents become increasingly attentive to the opinions of their peers as well as sensitive to peer approval (Collins and Steinberg, 2006; Steinberg, 2008). The increased focus on the peer context during adolescence is thought.

Recorded elsewhere, as this would have provided identifiable data of participants.

Recorded elsewhere, as this would have Lixisenatide mechanism of action provided identifiable data of participants. Once the Investigator and participant reviewed the verbal consent, and all participant questions and doubts were addressed, the investigator signed the consent form in the presence of the participant. A copy of the verbal consent was provided to the participant. The verbal consent procedure was approved by the ethics committee on February 9, 2011 prior to any participant contact.Data AnalysisFocus groups and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A Peruvian anthropologist experienced in sexuality and STI research (CRN) applied systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis that consisted of grouping and coding the information in thematic categories, and identifying recurring issues and differences in the narratives. A second reviewer (JG) confirmed the analysis and discrepancies were resolved. Representative quotes were extracted and translated into English.Results DemographicsWe recruited 36 participants comprised of three focus groups (of 6? participants in each sub-group) and 15 in-depth interviews. The mean participant age was 26 (range 18?0). We did not ask participants if they personally had GW; nevertheless, 4/15 of the in-depth interview participants spontaneously reported having HPV, and the results presented on personal experiences of having GW are based on the information provided by these subjects.Focus Groups and In-depth InterviewsThree main themes emerged across the focus group and indepth interviews: 1) Lixisenatide clinical trials knowledge of HPV and genital warts; 2) Genital wart-related attitudes and experiences; and 3) Management of genital warts. Each theme is presented below with representative quotes.PLOS ONE | www.plosone.orgHPV and Genital Warts in Peruvian MSM: ExperiencesKnowledge of HPV and genital wartsUnfamiliarity with HPV was common though a few participants recognized that HPV affects both men and women or linked GW to HPV. Some participants had heard of the term “papilloma”, a few reported that HPV was a transmissible and incurable infection, and others had little knowledge of HPV and associated it with women’s health problems: What I’ve heard [about papilloma] had to do with a case that happened to a female Brazilian model whose entire [sex] organ was infected and there were complications; that was the case that surprised me and was how I came to know about the issue. (man not identifying as ‘gay’ who reported having sex with men) [It is] a virus that has no cure, it is an illness… that has no remedy, treatment, right? I think that it appears through outbreaks on the hands, like blisters. (Gay sex worker) I have a cousin that is with papilloma… it is like little bumps that grow… she does not know if it is cancer or papilloma, but they ended up operating on her due to the outbreak… they say it has no cure. (Focus group with gay sex workers) In contrast, GW were familiar to most participants. Some had seen GW at least once on their sexual partners or clients, while others heard comments about people who had GW: I have a close friend who this happened to. I believe that they are like warts? Small, skin fragments that stick out. Something like that. (Focus group with gay men) However, many confused GW with visible or ulcerative STIs, “pimples”, “scars”, “wounds”, and other health problems affecting the anogenital zone, particularly “hemorrhoids”: When I penetrated a guy he had them, but they were small… o.Recorded elsewhere, as this would have provided identifiable data of participants. Once the Investigator and participant reviewed the verbal consent, and all participant questions and doubts were addressed, the investigator signed the consent form in the presence of the participant. A copy of the verbal consent was provided to the participant. The verbal consent procedure was approved by the ethics committee on February 9, 2011 prior to any participant contact.Data AnalysisFocus groups and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A Peruvian anthropologist experienced in sexuality and STI research (CRN) applied systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis that consisted of grouping and coding the information in thematic categories, and identifying recurring issues and differences in the narratives. A second reviewer (JG) confirmed the analysis and discrepancies were resolved. Representative quotes were extracted and translated into English.Results DemographicsWe recruited 36 participants comprised of three focus groups (of 6? participants in each sub-group) and 15 in-depth interviews. The mean participant age was 26 (range 18?0). We did not ask participants if they personally had GW; nevertheless, 4/15 of the in-depth interview participants spontaneously reported having HPV, and the results presented on personal experiences of having GW are based on the information provided by these subjects.Focus Groups and In-depth InterviewsThree main themes emerged across the focus group and indepth interviews: 1) Knowledge of HPV and genital warts; 2) Genital wart-related attitudes and experiences; and 3) Management of genital warts. Each theme is presented below with representative quotes.PLOS ONE | www.plosone.orgHPV and Genital Warts in Peruvian MSM: ExperiencesKnowledge of HPV and genital wartsUnfamiliarity with HPV was common though a few participants recognized that HPV affects both men and women or linked GW to HPV. Some participants had heard of the term “papilloma”, a few reported that HPV was a transmissible and incurable infection, and others had little knowledge of HPV and associated it with women’s health problems: What I’ve heard [about papilloma] had to do with a case that happened to a female Brazilian model whose entire [sex] organ was infected and there were complications; that was the case that surprised me and was how I came to know about the issue. (man not identifying as ‘gay’ who reported having sex with men) [It is] a virus that has no cure, it is an illness… that has no remedy, treatment, right? I think that it appears through outbreaks on the hands, like blisters. (Gay sex worker) I have a cousin that is with papilloma… it is like little bumps that grow… she does not know if it is cancer or papilloma, but they ended up operating on her due to the outbreak… they say it has no cure. (Focus group with gay sex workers) In contrast, GW were familiar to most participants. Some had seen GW at least once on their sexual partners or clients, while others heard comments about people who had GW: I have a close friend who this happened to. I believe that they are like warts? Small, skin fragments that stick out. Something like that. (Focus group with gay men) However, many confused GW with visible or ulcerative STIs, “pimples”, “scars”, “wounds”, and other health problems affecting the anogenital zone, particularly “hemorrhoids”: When I penetrated a guy he had them, but they were small… o.

(Geertz 1973) and so the search was not governed by the need

(Geertz 1973) and so the search was not governed by the need for direct or concise `answers’. Text was manually coded, and organised under initial descriptive themes. These themes were iteratively improved through discussion between the reviewers. Due to the paucity of qualitative research on task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, there was a great deal of variety between texts, and so line-?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?H Mijovic et al.by-line coding would have been tedious and potentially distracting. As such, codes were generated inductively and organised under 29 `descriptive themes’ (Thomas Harden 2008). A table showing the listing of these original descriptive themes is included in Appendix Table A3.Synthesis statementSuccessful task-shifting interventions are mindful of the professional jurisdictions of the staff who will be affected by the planned change and design the intervention in cooperation with them. Category 1 ?The professions involved must be aware of the need for a change, and their own role and professional identity should not be diminished as a result of the reform Task-shifting programmes introduced new professional and lay cadres of health workers, or changed the job roles of existing cadres. It should perhaps be obvious that such changes resulted in jurisdictional tensions between the professionals affected (Abbott 1988). An overarching theme emerging from both senior and frontline staff was the sentiment that the role of doctors and nurses in the healthcare system was being diminished through the task-shifting process. The mechanisms attributed to the role erosion included pushing highly skilled professionals out of the workplace (Study #1, #4, #5, #9), changes to one’s workload and work role (Study #3, #11, #12) and allowing for suboptimal quality of healthcare (Study #1). Although the specific categories of workload and suboptimal care are described in the next sections, it is important to remember that, more generally, the professions affected by the reform must be an active component of the change BAY1217389 biological activity process rather than being alienated from it. Category 2 ?The intervention must result in a manageable workload for all affected staff Task shifting was widely welcomed and acceptable when it involved delegation of nonclinical tasks, including data collection, Olumacostat glasaretilMedChemExpress Olumacostat glasaretil administrative work, ensuring treatment compliance and patient counselling. Health professionals felt that this kind of task shifting enabled them to focus on their `real’ work including clinical tasks and managerial duties. Introduction of a Monitoring Evaluation (M E) cadre in Botswana provided a particularly good example of a taskshifting intervention that health workers perceived as overwhelmingly beneficial to their work:So, when the district M E officers came in, they relieved the community health nurse in such a way that the community health nurse is able to go to facilities to attend to such programmes as child health and others. The district M E officer then took up [data responsibilities] for different HIV programmes. (District Manager, Botswana, Study # 8)SynthesisTo move beyond simple description and towards theory, the descriptive themes were then subjected to a further round of analysis. Again, following Thomas and Harden (2008), the aim was to generate `analytical themes’. Here, it was also possible to reintroduce the aims of the overall project ?to deriv.(Geertz 1973) and so the search was not governed by the need for direct or concise `answers’. Text was manually coded, and organised under initial descriptive themes. These themes were iteratively improved through discussion between the reviewers. Due to the paucity of qualitative research on task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, there was a great deal of variety between texts, and so line-?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?H Mijovic et al.by-line coding would have been tedious and potentially distracting. As such, codes were generated inductively and organised under 29 `descriptive themes’ (Thomas Harden 2008). A table showing the listing of these original descriptive themes is included in Appendix Table A3.Synthesis statementSuccessful task-shifting interventions are mindful of the professional jurisdictions of the staff who will be affected by the planned change and design the intervention in cooperation with them. Category 1 ?The professions involved must be aware of the need for a change, and their own role and professional identity should not be diminished as a result of the reform Task-shifting programmes introduced new professional and lay cadres of health workers, or changed the job roles of existing cadres. It should perhaps be obvious that such changes resulted in jurisdictional tensions between the professionals affected (Abbott 1988). An overarching theme emerging from both senior and frontline staff was the sentiment that the role of doctors and nurses in the healthcare system was being diminished through the task-shifting process. The mechanisms attributed to the role erosion included pushing highly skilled professionals out of the workplace (Study #1, #4, #5, #9), changes to one’s workload and work role (Study #3, #11, #12) and allowing for suboptimal quality of healthcare (Study #1). Although the specific categories of workload and suboptimal care are described in the next sections, it is important to remember that, more generally, the professions affected by the reform must be an active component of the change process rather than being alienated from it. Category 2 ?The intervention must result in a manageable workload for all affected staff Task shifting was widely welcomed and acceptable when it involved delegation of nonclinical tasks, including data collection, administrative work, ensuring treatment compliance and patient counselling. Health professionals felt that this kind of task shifting enabled them to focus on their `real’ work including clinical tasks and managerial duties. Introduction of a Monitoring Evaluation (M E) cadre in Botswana provided a particularly good example of a taskshifting intervention that health workers perceived as overwhelmingly beneficial to their work:So, when the district M E officers came in, they relieved the community health nurse in such a way that the community health nurse is able to go to facilities to attend to such programmes as child health and others. The district M E officer then took up [data responsibilities] for different HIV programmes. (District Manager, Botswana, Study # 8)SynthesisTo move beyond simple description and towards theory, the descriptive themes were then subjected to a further round of analysis. Again, following Thomas and Harden (2008), the aim was to generate `analytical themes’. Here, it was also possible to reintroduce the aims of the overall project ?to deriv.

Potential [E?(ArOH?/0)] give these molecules a strong preference to react

Potential [E?(ArOH?/0)] give these molecules a strong preference to react by concerted transfer of e- and H+ (HAT). Njus and Kelley used such reasoning to conclude that Vitamin E donates H?as opposed to e- in biological reactions.135 A characteristic of these and other systems that prefer to transfer H?rather than react by stepwise paths (cf., TEMPOH above) is the very large shift of the pKa upon redox change and (equivalently) the large shift of E?upon protonation: for -tocopherol, the pKa changes by 25 units and E?changes by 1.5 V. 5.2.5 Quinones, Hydroquinones and Catechols–The PCET chemistry of hydroquinones and catechols (1,4- and 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes, respectively) is somewhat similar to that of 4-substituted phenols, but more extensive because there are two transferable hydrogen atoms and removal of both leads to stable quinones. This means that instead of the four species of the standard `square scheme’ that are formed upon PT, ET, or CPET from HX (Scheme 4), there are nine species derived from H2Q, as shown in Figure 2. This is also the case for flavins, which are discussed below. In practice, the cationic forms, H2Q?, H2Q2+ and HQ+, are not involved in typical PCET reactivity because they are high energy species under normal conditions. In the reactions of the first O bond, hydroquinones follow the T0901317 chemical information patterns outlined above for phenols. In general, the pKa values for H2Q and the oxidation potential of HQ- fit on Hammett correlations with other 4-substituted phenols, both in aqueous117 and in organic media.116 For example, the BDFE of the first O bond in hydroquinone is 2? kcal mol-1 weaker than that of p-methoxyphenol. With hydroquinones and catechols, however, loss of H?yields the semiquinone radical that has a high propensity to lose a second H?148 Semiquinones and related species were among the first free radicals to be investigated inChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pagedetail: Michaelis’ 1935 review in this journal points out that many systems commonly understood as 1e- systems can actually undergo 1e- or 1H+/1e- redox chemistry, and that the redox properties of semiquinone-type radicals are dependent upon pH ?a very early recognition of the importance of PCET in biology.149 While hydroquinones have reactivity patterns that are in part similar to phenols, with purchase BMS-791325 preferential loss of H? quinones have a different PCET behavior, especially in water. Quinones are typically easily reduced to semiquinone radical anions in water, without the assistance of protons, and the Q? anions are not particularly basic (Table 6). Therefore quinone cofactors can readily mediate stepwise PCET reactions, with initial electron transfer followed by proton transfer. Q/Q? interconversion is well understood using semi-classical ET theory.150 Such stepwise mechanisms have been discussed,151 and an example of stepwise PT-ET of quinones in biology is discussed in Section 6 below. The aqueous 2H+/2e- potentials of many quinones have been reported, because they are easily measured and because they are important biological cofactors (ubiquinone, for instance, is so named because it is ubiquitous). Their electrochemistry is generally well behaved,153 although there is still much to be learned in this area.154 The electrochemical data directly give an average BDFE/BDE for each quinone system (Table 5). Interestingly, the average bond strength for most quinones lies between the relatively narrow range of 68 to 75.Potential [E?(ArOH?/0)] give these molecules a strong preference to react by concerted transfer of e- and H+ (HAT). Njus and Kelley used such reasoning to conclude that Vitamin E donates H?as opposed to e- in biological reactions.135 A characteristic of these and other systems that prefer to transfer H?rather than react by stepwise paths (cf., TEMPOH above) is the very large shift of the pKa upon redox change and (equivalently) the large shift of E?upon protonation: for -tocopherol, the pKa changes by 25 units and E?changes by 1.5 V. 5.2.5 Quinones, Hydroquinones and Catechols–The PCET chemistry of hydroquinones and catechols (1,4- and 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes, respectively) is somewhat similar to that of 4-substituted phenols, but more extensive because there are two transferable hydrogen atoms and removal of both leads to stable quinones. This means that instead of the four species of the standard `square scheme’ that are formed upon PT, ET, or CPET from HX (Scheme 4), there are nine species derived from H2Q, as shown in Figure 2. This is also the case for flavins, which are discussed below. In practice, the cationic forms, H2Q?, H2Q2+ and HQ+, are not involved in typical PCET reactivity because they are high energy species under normal conditions. In the reactions of the first O bond, hydroquinones follow the patterns outlined above for phenols. In general, the pKa values for H2Q and the oxidation potential of HQ- fit on Hammett correlations with other 4-substituted phenols, both in aqueous117 and in organic media.116 For example, the BDFE of the first O bond in hydroquinone is 2? kcal mol-1 weaker than that of p-methoxyphenol. With hydroquinones and catechols, however, loss of H?yields the semiquinone radical that has a high propensity to lose a second H?148 Semiquinones and related species were among the first free radicals to be investigated inChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pagedetail: Michaelis’ 1935 review in this journal points out that many systems commonly understood as 1e- systems can actually undergo 1e- or 1H+/1e- redox chemistry, and that the redox properties of semiquinone-type radicals are dependent upon pH ?a very early recognition of the importance of PCET in biology.149 While hydroquinones have reactivity patterns that are in part similar to phenols, with preferential loss of H? quinones have a different PCET behavior, especially in water. Quinones are typically easily reduced to semiquinone radical anions in water, without the assistance of protons, and the Q? anions are not particularly basic (Table 6). Therefore quinone cofactors can readily mediate stepwise PCET reactions, with initial electron transfer followed by proton transfer. Q/Q? interconversion is well understood using semi-classical ET theory.150 Such stepwise mechanisms have been discussed,151 and an example of stepwise PT-ET of quinones in biology is discussed in Section 6 below. The aqueous 2H+/2e- potentials of many quinones have been reported, because they are easily measured and because they are important biological cofactors (ubiquinone, for instance, is so named because it is ubiquitous). Their electrochemistry is generally well behaved,153 although there is still much to be learned in this area.154 The electrochemical data directly give an average BDFE/BDE for each quinone system (Table 5). Interestingly, the average bond strength for most quinones lies between the relatively narrow range of 68 to 75.

N scan or take a photo of the object in their

N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select I-BRD9MedChemExpress I-BRD9 laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of AMG9810 chemical information antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.N scan or take a photo of the object in their workplace, task, or virtual case, and the real object will be integrated in MARE. GP behavior can be tracked and their skill within the knowledge level tested. For example, KS1 involves obtaining microbiological cultures or other relevant tests before starting treatment as necessary. A patient who has bacterial pneumonia or viral pneumonia will be shown to a GP treating in MARE. The GP will either select laboratory tests and interpret results or not. We will know whether the GP achieves KS1 or not. The KC of GPs can also be evaluated in MARE. GPs can write instant messages, comment, and annotate that they understand the rational use of antibiotics. GPs can also categorize, tag, or highlight the information that they think is correct. For example, KC2 is recognizing trade and generic names, and the class of prescribed antimicrobials. GPs can categorize the class of prescribed antimicrobials when using MARE to scan trade or generic names.Competence LevelThe competence level expected of GPs regarding rational use of antibiotics is described in Table 2. Emotions and values not only affect the application of knowledge but are also a foundation for building GP competence according to physicians’ professional competence definitions [34]. When we use MARE to evaluate GPs’ competence levels, the cases could be conducted in mixed real environments (eg, the real person and the symptom described coexist on the GP’s mobile phone in his or her workplace). The procedure for forecasting, executing, or replying can be uploaded to evaluate the GP’s CC and CS. For example, CC4 is constructing a prescription for an antimicrobial with its pharmacokinetics and knowing how this affects the choice of dosage regimen. The case condition will change when different antimicrobials are used with their pharmacokinetics. The result for the forecasting of antibiotics by the GP and the dosage regimen will be evaluated.Application of Mobile Augmented Reality Education to a Health Care ChallengeIn recent years, one of the global health threats has been the spread of antibiotic resistance. Encouraging rational antibiotic use is of paramount concern to authorities worldwide in order to minimize the development of resistance [50]. Multifaceted national and international strategies have been recommended [51]. Education is an important strategy for the rational use of antibiotics. We used the MARE framework to design GP training for the rational use of antibiotics. Implementing the MARE framework involves several steps: (1) defining the educational outcomes (based on the outcome layer), (2) defining the GP’s personal paradigm, (3) characterizing the learning environment, and (4) designing the learning activities.Performance LevelThe performance level expected of GPs regarding the rational use of antibiotics is shown in Table 3. To aid GPs in assessing their workplace performance using the MARE framework, we should build a network for physicians in which they can share their work experiences; then the GPs can review, question, and validate their work performances with each other. Further, the GPs can negotiate, debate, and comment on real cases, and their performance in skills, such as PC and PS, can be tracked and estimated. For example, PS2 is mastering when to use a delayed antimicrobial prescription and how to negotiate this with the patient. One way is to evaluate the GP’s response with the patient case shared on MARE with othe.

With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital

With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital and physical network flows can contribute to support a better JNJ-54781532 web monitoring of SDG indicators, as illustrated by the high correlation between Internet and postal flows on the one hand, with an exhaustive list of socioeconomic indicators on the other hand.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,16 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingWe also note the considerable potential, exposed here, for future applications of postal flow data. While we have here restricted our analysis to country-level relations, postal flows allow for socio-economic mapping on a sub-national level which can inform development programmes on a practical level. An additional dimension to be explored–that is beyond the scope of this paper is temporal analysis which, combined with the multiplex network model presented above, could provide early warning of economic shocks and their propagation [41]. Interestingly, despite the ease of digital interactions and subsequent PD98059 web evidence that `distance is dead’ [42], physical networks, particularly the global postal, flight and migration networks, are still stronger candidates for proxy variables in case of missing data than digital networks such as the Internet or social media. These networks not only reach populations excluded from access to digital communications, but are also associated with the highest number of country pairs sharing relatively similar socioeconomic patterns, in turn opening numerous ways of completing missing data with proxy variables. In the digital era, greater granularity and frequency of analysis and monitoring of SDGs can, paradoxically, be achieved through global physical networks data. We expect that the value as proxies for the digital communication networks will increase as they mature, expand and become more accessible. In the near future, both physical and digital networks will need to be combined to optimise monitoring efforts. In that sense, the emergence of the Internet of things (IoT) could play a critical role by making even more fuzzy the frontiers between the digital and physical worlds.Supporting InformationS1 Fig. Correlation matrix augmented with correlation coefficients for each cell. All results are statistically significant with p<0.05. (EPS) S1 Table. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic results and p-values for socioeconomic indicator differences between pairs of countries with minimal and maximal community multiplexity values (1 and 6). (TEX) S1 File. International postal network edges, where Source is the sending country, Target is the receiving country and Weight is the volume of post sent, normalised over the Source country population and scaled. (CSV)AcknowledgmentsDesislava Hristova was supported by the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC through Grant GALE (EP/K019392). We are grateful to Andrei Bejan for the statistics consultation and Noa Zilberman for advice on the DIMES Project data.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: DH AR JA MLO. Performed the experiments: DH. Analyzed the data: DH AR JA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AR JA MLO. Wrote the paper: DH AR JA MLO CM.
Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of d.With similar connectivity profiles. We have shown how both global digital and physical network flows can contribute to support a better monitoring of SDG indicators, as illustrated by the high correlation between Internet and postal flows on the one hand, with an exhaustive list of socioeconomic indicators on the other hand.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155976 June 1,16 /The International Postal Network and Other Global Flows as Proxies for National WellbeingWe also note the considerable potential, exposed here, for future applications of postal flow data. While we have here restricted our analysis to country-level relations, postal flows allow for socio-economic mapping on a sub-national level which can inform development programmes on a practical level. An additional dimension to be explored–that is beyond the scope of this paper is temporal analysis which, combined with the multiplex network model presented above, could provide early warning of economic shocks and their propagation [41]. Interestingly, despite the ease of digital interactions and subsequent evidence that `distance is dead’ [42], physical networks, particularly the global postal, flight and migration networks, are still stronger candidates for proxy variables in case of missing data than digital networks such as the Internet or social media. These networks not only reach populations excluded from access to digital communications, but are also associated with the highest number of country pairs sharing relatively similar socioeconomic patterns, in turn opening numerous ways of completing missing data with proxy variables. In the digital era, greater granularity and frequency of analysis and monitoring of SDGs can, paradoxically, be achieved through global physical networks data. We expect that the value as proxies for the digital communication networks will increase as they mature, expand and become more accessible. In the near future, both physical and digital networks will need to be combined to optimise monitoring efforts. In that sense, the emergence of the Internet of things (IoT) could play a critical role by making even more fuzzy the frontiers between the digital and physical worlds.Supporting InformationS1 Fig. Correlation matrix augmented with correlation coefficients for each cell. All results are statistically significant with p<0.05. (EPS) S1 Table. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic results and p-values for socioeconomic indicator differences between pairs of countries with minimal and maximal community multiplexity values (1 and 6). (TEX) S1 File. International postal network edges, where Source is the sending country, Target is the receiving country and Weight is the volume of post sent, normalised over the Source country population and scaled. (CSV)AcknowledgmentsDesislava Hristova was supported by the Project LASAGNE, Contract No. 318132 (STREP), funded by the European Commission and EPSRC through Grant GALE (EP/K019392). We are grateful to Andrei Bejan for the statistics consultation and Noa Zilberman for advice on the DIMES Project data.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: DH AR JA MLO. Performed the experiments: DH. Analyzed the data: DH AR JA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AR JA MLO. Wrote the paper: DH AR JA MLO CM.
Integrated Care Settings (ICS) provide a holistic approach to the transition from chronic kidney disease into renal replacement therapy (RRT), offering at least both types of d.

D vs a stranger and the prominent and differential role of

D vs a stranger and the prominent and differential role of psychological distress individually and at the dyadic level in moderating the neural response. This study confirms the P2 and slow wave responses as reliable neural responses for friend rejection in middle childhood. Our previous work with stranger exclusion in Cyberball and ERPs (Crowley et al., 2009b, 2010) did not identify P2 responses for rejection events. Potentially, the presence of known others and their higher salience more strongly engages attention mechanisms in the frontal region as indexed by P2. The direction of the effect observed on ERP appears to be specific to the type of the relationship, kin vs friend relationship, and the underlying psychological distress. Moreover, not only the individual’s distress but also the combined psychological distress levels in friend pairs affect the brain responses in social exclusion.Limitations and direction for future researchThe issue of sample size frequently arises as a study limitation. In the context of the APIM framework, the number of predictors emerging from a dyadic model compounds sample size issues. In this study, the single examined predictor (psychological distress) led to seven regression terms (Table 4). There are buy 6-Methoxybaicalein myriad other relevant variables that could be considered within the APIM framework, some of which we suggest below. A sample larger than ours (n ?46) would be needed to explore multiple predictors.Based on our study design, findings are limited to psychological distress, ostracism distress and their individual and dyadic effects on neural response to social exclusion. In the absence of previous work examining social exclusion in the context play with a friend and a stranger, we administered the widely used measure of global ostracism distress (Need Threat for assessing control, belonging, meaningful existence, selfesteem), predicting this self-report would track neural response to rejection events. Our data suggest that psychological distress, but not global ostracism distress tracks neural response when social exclusion involves a friend or a same age/gender stranger. Providing discriminant validity for the psychological distress-rejection event effects, exploratory analysis (see correlation Supplementary Table B) shows that neither psychological distress, nor ostracism distress were BLU-554 web related to P2 or slow wave responses when the throws were to the participant in fair play (see Supplementary Figure A for inclusion event ERPs). Two potential factors come to mind that may have contributed to the lack of findings for ostracism distress in this study. First, the measure of global distress does not distinguish between thoughts and emotions about the friend and the thoughts and emotions about the stranger. Clearly our neural response data show that response to friend and stranger are distinguishable. Second, the type of measure could reflect the differential cognitions and emotions that a participant might have for the friend and stranger, respectively. For instance, it could be that factors such as trust and betrayal are more relevant for understanding social exclusion in the context of a friendship. For instance, betrayal of friendship, as in violation of friendship expectations, is associated with increase in negative emotions especially differentially among boys and girls (MacEvoy and Asher, 2012). On the other hand, issues of jealousy, surveillance behavior (Lavallee and Parker, 2009) and interpersonal t.D vs a stranger and the prominent and differential role of psychological distress individually and at the dyadic level in moderating the neural response. This study confirms the P2 and slow wave responses as reliable neural responses for friend rejection in middle childhood. Our previous work with stranger exclusion in Cyberball and ERPs (Crowley et al., 2009b, 2010) did not identify P2 responses for rejection events. Potentially, the presence of known others and their higher salience more strongly engages attention mechanisms in the frontal region as indexed by P2. The direction of the effect observed on ERP appears to be specific to the type of the relationship, kin vs friend relationship, and the underlying psychological distress. Moreover, not only the individual’s distress but also the combined psychological distress levels in friend pairs affect the brain responses in social exclusion.Limitations and direction for future researchThe issue of sample size frequently arises as a study limitation. In the context of the APIM framework, the number of predictors emerging from a dyadic model compounds sample size issues. In this study, the single examined predictor (psychological distress) led to seven regression terms (Table 4). There are myriad other relevant variables that could be considered within the APIM framework, some of which we suggest below. A sample larger than ours (n ?46) would be needed to explore multiple predictors.Based on our study design, findings are limited to psychological distress, ostracism distress and their individual and dyadic effects on neural response to social exclusion. In the absence of previous work examining social exclusion in the context play with a friend and a stranger, we administered the widely used measure of global ostracism distress (Need Threat for assessing control, belonging, meaningful existence, selfesteem), predicting this self-report would track neural response to rejection events. Our data suggest that psychological distress, but not global ostracism distress tracks neural response when social exclusion involves a friend or a same age/gender stranger. Providing discriminant validity for the psychological distress-rejection event effects, exploratory analysis (see correlation Supplementary Table B) shows that neither psychological distress, nor ostracism distress were related to P2 or slow wave responses when the throws were to the participant in fair play (see Supplementary Figure A for inclusion event ERPs). Two potential factors come to mind that may have contributed to the lack of findings for ostracism distress in this study. First, the measure of global distress does not distinguish between thoughts and emotions about the friend and the thoughts and emotions about the stranger. Clearly our neural response data show that response to friend and stranger are distinguishable. Second, the type of measure could reflect the differential cognitions and emotions that a participant might have for the friend and stranger, respectively. For instance, it could be that factors such as trust and betrayal are more relevant for understanding social exclusion in the context of a friendship. For instance, betrayal of friendship, as in violation of friendship expectations, is associated with increase in negative emotions especially differentially among boys and girls (MacEvoy and Asher, 2012). On the other hand, issues of jealousy, surveillance behavior (Lavallee and Parker, 2009) and interpersonal t.

Ated for some time (for example Blumenfeld-Jones, 1995; Lapidus, 1996; Conrad, 2006). However, arts-based

Ated for some time (for example Blumenfeld-Jones, 1995; Lapidus, 1996; Conrad, 2006). However, arts-based research is new to health studies. Of the over 70 arts-based health studies reviewed by Boydell et al (2012), the majority were published in the past 5 years. In nonresearch contexts, the arts have been enlisted for health policy development and health promotion campaigns (Carson et al, 2007). Theatre, with its gestural, sensual and aesthetic language, has become an established tool in health research to convey patients’ lived experiences (Gray et al, 2001, 2003; Mitchell et al, 2006; Rossiter et al, 2008). This article draws from a theatre-based project MS023 dose regarding the psycho-social impacts of lymphedema, a complication from the treatment of breast cancer that involves swelling and associated abnormal accumulation of observable and palpable protein-rich fluid (Armer, 2005; McLaughlin et al, 2008). In the project we used the expressive arts of collages and everyday-objects installations with a group of breast cancer survivors in order to create an ethnodrama ?a dramatic performance of their lived experience ?for subsequent presentation to other survivors and health-care providers. This article focuses on the use of the expressive arts with the group of survivors and enlists Jurgen Habermas’ theory to elucidate their potential to generate undistorted lifeworld communication. As part of Habermas’ extensive work on social political theory, aesthetic rationality is featured as an emancipatory tool; however, this has not been applied to the context of healthcare, a gap filled by this article. A subsequent paper will extend the line of enquiry by analysing the impact of the ethnodrama. Habermas’ conceptual work on the parallel processes of lifeworld colonization and cultural impoverishment, along with his counterweight notion of discursive democracy, offers a foundation for health-care studies (Williams and Popay, 2001; Hodges, 2005; Lohan and Coleman, 2005; Brown, 2011). The one-sided rationalization of communicative practice of everyday life into specialist-utilitarian cultures elucidated292 ?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?Aesthetic rationality of the popular expressive artsby Habermas is clear in Canada’s health-care system. The professionalization of EPZ004777 biological activity medical knowledge and bureaucratization of duties, roles and responsibilities has produced dysfunctional provider practices uncoupled from consensus-oriented procedures of negotiation between patient and providers (Cohen, 1995). The cultural impoverishment of healthcare is attributable to the development of medical expert knowledge uncoupled from the communicative infrastructure of patients’ everyday lives. Silverman (1987) argues that patients’ lifeworlds have become irredeemably colonized and processes of mutual understanding truncated from the cultural resources necessary to moderate system domination. In this article, we take an oppositional position to Silverman and show that the expressive arts are a vehicle to offset expert cultures, revitalize patients’ lifeworlds and expedite discursive democracy within patient groups. We argue that these popular aesthetic forms, which are neither commodifiable nor esoteric, are readily available for subordinating the inner dynamics of the health-care system to new communicatively achieved understandings. After sketching out the relevant Habermasian concepts and outlining the study’s methods and part.Ated for some time (for example Blumenfeld-Jones, 1995; Lapidus, 1996; Conrad, 2006). However, arts-based research is new to health studies. Of the over 70 arts-based health studies reviewed by Boydell et al (2012), the majority were published in the past 5 years. In nonresearch contexts, the arts have been enlisted for health policy development and health promotion campaigns (Carson et al, 2007). Theatre, with its gestural, sensual and aesthetic language, has become an established tool in health research to convey patients’ lived experiences (Gray et al, 2001, 2003; Mitchell et al, 2006; Rossiter et al, 2008). This article draws from a theatre-based project regarding the psycho-social impacts of lymphedema, a complication from the treatment of breast cancer that involves swelling and associated abnormal accumulation of observable and palpable protein-rich fluid (Armer, 2005; McLaughlin et al, 2008). In the project we used the expressive arts of collages and everyday-objects installations with a group of breast cancer survivors in order to create an ethnodrama ?a dramatic performance of their lived experience ?for subsequent presentation to other survivors and health-care providers. This article focuses on the use of the expressive arts with the group of survivors and enlists Jurgen Habermas’ theory to elucidate their potential to generate undistorted lifeworld communication. As part of Habermas’ extensive work on social political theory, aesthetic rationality is featured as an emancipatory tool; however, this has not been applied to the context of healthcare, a gap filled by this article. A subsequent paper will extend the line of enquiry by analysing the impact of the ethnodrama. Habermas’ conceptual work on the parallel processes of lifeworld colonization and cultural impoverishment, along with his counterweight notion of discursive democracy, offers a foundation for health-care studies (Williams and Popay, 2001; Hodges, 2005; Lohan and Coleman, 2005; Brown, 2011). The one-sided rationalization of communicative practice of everyday life into specialist-utilitarian cultures elucidated292 ?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?Aesthetic rationality of the popular expressive artsby Habermas is clear in Canada’s health-care system. The professionalization of medical knowledge and bureaucratization of duties, roles and responsibilities has produced dysfunctional provider practices uncoupled from consensus-oriented procedures of negotiation between patient and providers (Cohen, 1995). The cultural impoverishment of healthcare is attributable to the development of medical expert knowledge uncoupled from the communicative infrastructure of patients’ everyday lives. Silverman (1987) argues that patients’ lifeworlds have become irredeemably colonized and processes of mutual understanding truncated from the cultural resources necessary to moderate system domination. In this article, we take an oppositional position to Silverman and show that the expressive arts are a vehicle to offset expert cultures, revitalize patients’ lifeworlds and expedite discursive democracy within patient groups. We argue that these popular aesthetic forms, which are neither commodifiable nor esoteric, are readily available for subordinating the inner dynamics of the health-care system to new communicatively achieved understandings. After sketching out the relevant Habermasian concepts and outlining the study’s methods and part.

S” and “I was in a position to knowledge the general work of

S” and “I was able to encounter the overall work of a pharmacist sufficiently.” There were also ite
ms relating towards the learning atmosphere, for instance “I felt that there were too a lot of tasks that would not directly result in my finding out as a trainee” and “When screening of prescriptions or dispensing, two pharmacists were involved to ensure the safety.” Moreover, the products that seemed to contribute to deepening the finding out have been integrated; “Did you have got a opportunity to possess sreflection sessions among students” In addition, we made an inquiry regarding the occurrence of problems at the coaching web page, by asking “Did you might have any problems using a patient” and with regards to the training status in the pharmacist instructors,Utsumi et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Well being Care and Sciences :Web page ofby asking “The pharmacist (who was involved within your education) worked really hard in coaching you” and “The pharmacists had been in a position to have an empathetic communication with you.” One more item, relating to the support status from the university teachers, was included by asking “The university teachers supplied sufficient assistance for me to ensure that I can avoid trouble, or work on the sensible coaching smoothly in case of trouble.” For concerns around the instruction environment that have been supplied by pharmacists, the BEC (hydrochloride) target was not limited for the licensed instructor pharmacists for pharmacy practice applications. Rather, we requested that students answer the concerns MedChemExpress TCS-OX2-29 maintaining all involved pharmacists in thoughts. For any missing values among the sixpoint scale things, the typical worth on the general applicable PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12056292 items was substituted, even though missing values for questions based around the twopoint scale were removed in the analysis. For the items primarily based on a sixpoint scale, we performed an exploratory element analysis (maximum likelihood estimationpromax rotation) to clarify the issue structure with the overall responses. Subsequent, we divided the obtained factor scores into two groups (and) and compared both years with Levene’s test. Homogeneous dispersal of the obtained aspect points was not discovered on some components. Thus, we conducted a t test based on Welch’s approach, as a way to examine the two years. For the items primarily based on a twopoint scale, we carried out a comparative evaluation in the two years utilizing simple tabulation along with the chisquare test. So that you can get an understanding with the all round perception on the fivemonth pharmacy practice programs in hospitals and pharmacies (two plus a half months for each location), we categorized the student response patterns towards the things primarily based on a twopoint scale, then carried out McNemar’s test on the data. We employed R . jsSTAR release j, and Excel for statistical analysis. Our study was carried out with all the approval of the Ethics Committee of Kobe Gakuin University. Also, we explained that there was definitely no influence on academic records without participation in the survey.Table Attributes on the respondentsRespondents Sex Male Female Location Hokkaido Tohoku Kanto Hokuriku Tokai Kinki ChugokuShikoku KyusyuYamaguchi ResultsRespondent attributesThe respondents on the survey totaled , (the successful response price was .) and also the average age was years old (in years, in years). The student qualities are shown by year in Table . Respondents who omitted simple qualities (age, sex) and these that left 3 or more products blank have been removed in the analysis.Factor analysisWe performed an exploratory issue analysis targeting items. This was based on a si.S” and “I was able to expertise the overall work of a pharmacist sufficiently.” There had been also ite
ms relating to the mastering environment, for instance “I felt that there have been too several tasks that wouldn’t directly bring about my learning as a trainee” and “When screening of prescriptions or dispensing, two pharmacists had been involved to make sure the safety.” Additionally, the items that seemed to contribute to deepening the learning had been included; “Did you might have a chance to have sreflection sessions amongst students” Moreover, we created an inquiry regarding the occurrence of issues at the coaching internet site, by asking “Did you have any trouble having a patient” and relating to the training status in the pharmacist instructors,Utsumi et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Wellness Care and Sciences :Web page ofby asking “The pharmacist (who was involved within your coaching) worked extremely difficult in coaching you” and “The pharmacists were able to have an empathetic communication with you.” A further item, regarding the support status on the university teachers, was included by asking “The university teachers provided sufficient support for me so that I can prevent difficulty, or work around the sensible coaching smoothly in case of trouble.” For queries on the training environment that had been provided by pharmacists, the target was not limited to the licensed instructor pharmacists for pharmacy practice programs. Rather, we requested that students answer the queries maintaining all involved pharmacists in thoughts. For any missing values among the sixpoint scale things, the average worth from the general applicable PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12056292 items was substituted, whilst missing values for questions based on the twopoint scale have been removed in the evaluation. For the things primarily based on a sixpoint scale, we conducted an exploratory aspect analysis (maximum likelihood estimationpromax rotation) to clarify the issue structure with the all round responses. Next, we divided the obtained factor scores into two groups (and) and compared each years with Levene’s test. Homogeneous dispersal of your obtained element points was not identified on some factors. Thus, we conducted a t test primarily based on Welch’s strategy, in an effort to evaluate the two years. For the products based on a twopoint scale, we conducted a comparative evaluation from the two years applying straightforward tabulation and the chisquare test. As a way to obtain an understanding on the general perception of your fivemonth pharmacy practice programs in hospitals and pharmacies (two and a half months for each and every place), we categorized the student response patterns towards the things primarily based on a twopoint scale, and after that carried out McNemar’s test around the information. We utilised R . jsSTAR release j, and Excel for statistical analysis. Our study was conducted with all the approval of the Ethics Committee of Kobe Gakuin University. In addition, we explained that there was totally no influence on academic records with out participation within the survey.Table Attributes from the respondentsRespondents Sex Male Female Area Hokkaido Tohoku Kanto Hokuriku Tokai Kinki ChugokuShikoku KyusyuYamaguchi ResultsRespondent attributesThe respondents with the survey totaled , (the powerful response price was .) as well as the typical age was years old (in years, in years). The student qualities are shown by year in Table . Respondents who omitted basic traits (age, sex) and those that left three or more items blank had been removed in the analysis.Factor analysisWe conducted an exploratory aspect analysis targeting things. This was based on a si.

Ee policies among pharmacists within Nigeria. However, it does have some

Ee policies among pharmacists within Nigeria. However, it does have some limitations as the cross sectional nature of the study does not allow for any causal inference. In addition, the pharmacists were drawn from Lagos state, the commercial capital of the country and one of the most populous states in Nigeria, therefore the findings cannot be generalized to the entire country.www.pharmacypractice.org (ISSN: 1886-3655)Poluyi EO, Odukoya OO, Aina BA Faseru B. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria. Pharmacy Practice 2015 Jan-Mar;13(1):486.CONCLUSIONS The majority of community pharmacists were aware of the harmfulness of tobacco to the smoker and to a lesser extent, the non-smoker while most of them were unaware of the current country-level tobacco control policies. Nevertheless, the majority of community pharmacists did support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should be made to educate pharmacists about tobacco related health risks and country-level smoke-free laws. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to Dr. Memuna Esan of the Department of Community Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital and Mary T. Hynek of the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA for proof reading the final manuscript. Author contributions: EOP OOO conceived the research idea. ABA and BF revised the study design and methodology for intellectual content. EOP and OOO performed the initial analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative findings. This was refined by ABA and BF. All authors contributed towards the drafting and final review of the manuscript. CONFLICT OF INTEREST None declared. CONOCIMIENTO SOBRE EL TABACO Y APOYO A LAS POL ICAS DE SIN HUMO ENTRE LOS FARMAC TICOS COMUNITARIOS DEL ESTADO DE LAGOS, NIGERIARESUMENAntecedentes: No hay niveles seguros de exposici de fumador pasivo y las pol icas de sin-humo han mostrado ser efectivas en la reducci del da de las enfermedades y muertes producidas por tabaco. Los farmac ticos, como grupo destacado de profesionales de la salud, pueden jugar un papel en la promoci de pol icas sin-humo. Objetivo: Determinar el conocimiento sobre el tabaco de los farmac ticos comunitarios y su apoyo a pol icas sin-humo en el estado de Lagos, Nigeria.M odos: Se utiliz?un estudio transversal usando tanto m odos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Se entrevist?a 212 farmac ticos comunitarios aleatoriamente seleccionados utilizando un cuestionario autoadministrado pre-pilotado. Adem , se realiz?una ZM241385 structure discusi en grupo focal con 10 farmac ticos de la secci del estado de Lagos de la ACY 241MedChemExpress ACY 241 Asociaci de Farmac ticos Comunitarios de Nigeria. Resultados: El cuestionario cuantitativo revel?que la mayor (72,1 ) de los respondentes ten n entre 20 y 40 a s, eran predominantemente hombres (60,8 ), de las etnias Yoruba (50,2 ) o Igbo (40,3 ) y estaban ejerciendo durante 10 a s o menos (72,2 ). La mayor (90,1 ) sab que el tabaco es malo para la salud. Ligeramente menos (75,8 ) sab que ser fumador pasivo es malo para la salud. Entre las enfermedades identificadas, los farmac ticos respondieron que los canceres de pulm (84,4 ) y de es ago (68,9 ) eran las enfermedades m frecuentemente asociadas con el tabaco. Menos de la mitad de los entrevistados asoci?el tabaco con enfermedad cardiaca (46.Ee policies among pharmacists within Nigeria. However, it does have some limitations as the cross sectional nature of the study does not allow for any causal inference. In addition, the pharmacists were drawn from Lagos state, the commercial capital of the country and one of the most populous states in Nigeria, therefore the findings cannot be generalized to the entire country.www.pharmacypractice.org (ISSN: 1886-3655)Poluyi EO, Odukoya OO, Aina BA Faseru B. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria. Pharmacy Practice 2015 Jan-Mar;13(1):486.CONCLUSIONS The majority of community pharmacists were aware of the harmfulness of tobacco to the smoker and to a lesser extent, the non-smoker while most of them were unaware of the current country-level tobacco control policies. Nevertheless, the majority of community pharmacists did support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should be made to educate pharmacists about tobacco related health risks and country-level smoke-free laws. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to Dr. Memuna Esan of the Department of Community Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital and Mary T. Hynek of the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA for proof reading the final manuscript. Author contributions: EOP OOO conceived the research idea. ABA and BF revised the study design and methodology for intellectual content. EOP and OOO performed the initial analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative findings. This was refined by ABA and BF. All authors contributed towards the drafting and final review of the manuscript. CONFLICT OF INTEREST None declared. CONOCIMIENTO SOBRE EL TABACO Y APOYO A LAS POL ICAS DE SIN HUMO ENTRE LOS FARMAC TICOS COMUNITARIOS DEL ESTADO DE LAGOS, NIGERIARESUMENAntecedentes: No hay niveles seguros de exposici de fumador pasivo y las pol icas de sin-humo han mostrado ser efectivas en la reducci del da de las enfermedades y muertes producidas por tabaco. Los farmac ticos, como grupo destacado de profesionales de la salud, pueden jugar un papel en la promoci de pol icas sin-humo. Objetivo: Determinar el conocimiento sobre el tabaco de los farmac ticos comunitarios y su apoyo a pol icas sin-humo en el estado de Lagos, Nigeria.M odos: Se utiliz?un estudio transversal usando tanto m odos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Se entrevist?a 212 farmac ticos comunitarios aleatoriamente seleccionados utilizando un cuestionario autoadministrado pre-pilotado. Adem , se realiz?una discusi en grupo focal con 10 farmac ticos de la secci del estado de Lagos de la Asociaci de Farmac ticos Comunitarios de Nigeria. Resultados: El cuestionario cuantitativo revel?que la mayor (72,1 ) de los respondentes ten n entre 20 y 40 a s, eran predominantemente hombres (60,8 ), de las etnias Yoruba (50,2 ) o Igbo (40,3 ) y estaban ejerciendo durante 10 a s o menos (72,2 ). La mayor (90,1 ) sab que el tabaco es malo para la salud. Ligeramente menos (75,8 ) sab que ser fumador pasivo es malo para la salud. Entre las enfermedades identificadas, los farmac ticos respondieron que los canceres de pulm (84,4 ) y de es ago (68,9 ) eran las enfermedades m frecuentemente asociadas con el tabaco. Menos de la mitad de los entrevistados asoci?el tabaco con enfermedad cardiaca (46.