Show that the presence in joints of cultivable B. burgdorferi with

Show that the presence in joints of cultivable B. burgdorferi with DbpA and B expression is a prerequisite for arthritis development in LB mouse model. Importantly, the results demonstrate that immunosuppression by anti-TNF-alpha treatment does not lead to activation of a possible latent infection and appearance of joint swelling in the antibiotic treated mice.Role of DbpA and B in persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA in mouse joints after ceftriaxone treatment at two weeksAs shown above, none of the SB 202190 web infected and ceftriaxone treated animals were culture positive, and anti-TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the culture positivity. However, B. burgdorferi DNA was PCR amplified from all joint tissues of dbpAB/dbpAB infected and ceftriaxone (or ceftriaxone and anti-TNFalpha) treated mice 12 weeks after antibiotic treatment (Table 2, groups 9 and 11). Interestingly, all ear and bladder trans-4-Hydroxytamoxifen site samples of the treated animals were PCR negative suggesting persistence of borrelial remnants specifically in joint tissue. Furthermore, none of 1471-2474-14-48 the dbpAB infected and treated mice retained borrelial DNA in the joints, or in ear and bladder tissues (Table 2, groups 10 and 12). The qPCR results of the joint tissues of treated and untreated dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice demonstrated that ceftriaxone, or ceftriaxone and anti-TNF-alpha treatment, did not have a statistically significant effect on the B. burgdorferi DNA load in the tissues (Fig. 4, groups 7, 9 and 11). Taken together, the presented results demonstrate the post-treatment persistence of borrelial DNA in mouse joints only when the animals are infected with a B. burgdorferi strain expressing DbpA and B adhesins.Analysis of the early dissemination of the infectionThe finding that B. burgdorferi DNA is detected after antibiotic treatment solely in the joints of dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice might be explained by a defect in the early dissemination and joint colonization of dbpAB in mice. To investigate this, we analysed the culture and PCR positivity and bacterial load in tissues of dbpAB/dbpAB and dbpAB infected mice at 2 weeks of infection (Experiment III, groups 13?5). Of dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice all analysed samples, except one ear, were culture positive and all joint samples contained borrelial DNA (Table 4, group 14). Of dbpAB infected mice three out of eight joints contained cultivable B. burgdorferi, while all ear and bladder samples were culture negative (Table 4, group 15). In the PCR analyses, four joints of dbpAB infected mice were borrelial DNA positive (one culture negative sample was PCR positive with both PCR methods). The bacterial load in the PCR positive joint samples was statistically significantly (P = 0.003) lower in dbpAB infected mice than in dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice (Fig. 4, groups 14 and 15). In conclusion, there clearly is a defect in the early dissemination and tissue colonization of the DbpA and B deficient strain. Interestingly however, while all ear jir.2010.0097 and bladder samples of dbpAB infected mice were B. burgdorferi negative, half of the animals were PCR and/or culture positive in the joints. ThisTable 4. B. burgdorferi culture and PCR results of Experiment III at two weeks of infection. Culture Group 13 14 15 Strain/treatment Uninfected dbpAB/dbpAB dbpAB Ear 0/4 7/8 0/8 Bladder 0/4 8/8 0/8 Joint 0/4 8/8 3/8 PCR of joints flaB 0/4 8/8 3/8 ospA 0/4 8/8 3/8 Any method 0/4 8/8 4/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121512.tPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121512 March 27,11 /DbpA and B Promote A.Show that the presence in joints of cultivable B. burgdorferi with DbpA and B expression is a prerequisite for arthritis development in LB mouse model. Importantly, the results demonstrate that immunosuppression by anti-TNF-alpha treatment does not lead to activation of a possible latent infection and appearance of joint swelling in the antibiotic treated mice.Role of DbpA and B in persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA in mouse joints after ceftriaxone treatment at two weeksAs shown above, none of the infected and ceftriaxone treated animals were culture positive, and anti-TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the culture positivity. However, B. burgdorferi DNA was PCR amplified from all joint tissues of dbpAB/dbpAB infected and ceftriaxone (or ceftriaxone and anti-TNFalpha) treated mice 12 weeks after antibiotic treatment (Table 2, groups 9 and 11). Interestingly, all ear and bladder samples of the treated animals were PCR negative suggesting persistence of borrelial remnants specifically in joint tissue. Furthermore, none of 1471-2474-14-48 the dbpAB infected and treated mice retained borrelial DNA in the joints, or in ear and bladder tissues (Table 2, groups 10 and 12). The qPCR results of the joint tissues of treated and untreated dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice demonstrated that ceftriaxone, or ceftriaxone and anti-TNF-alpha treatment, did not have a statistically significant effect on the B. burgdorferi DNA load in the tissues (Fig. 4, groups 7, 9 and 11). Taken together, the presented results demonstrate the post-treatment persistence of borrelial DNA in mouse joints only when the animals are infected with a B. burgdorferi strain expressing DbpA and B adhesins.Analysis of the early dissemination of the infectionThe finding that B. burgdorferi DNA is detected after antibiotic treatment solely in the joints of dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice might be explained by a defect in the early dissemination and joint colonization of dbpAB in mice. To investigate this, we analysed the culture and PCR positivity and bacterial load in tissues of dbpAB/dbpAB and dbpAB infected mice at 2 weeks of infection (Experiment III, groups 13?5). Of dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice all analysed samples, except one ear, were culture positive and all joint samples contained borrelial DNA (Table 4, group 14). Of dbpAB infected mice three out of eight joints contained cultivable B. burgdorferi, while all ear and bladder samples were culture negative (Table 4, group 15). In the PCR analyses, four joints of dbpAB infected mice were borrelial DNA positive (one culture negative sample was PCR positive with both PCR methods). The bacterial load in the PCR positive joint samples was statistically significantly (P = 0.003) lower in dbpAB infected mice than in dbpAB/dbpAB infected mice (Fig. 4, groups 14 and 15). In conclusion, there clearly is a defect in the early dissemination and tissue colonization of the DbpA and B deficient strain. Interestingly however, while all ear jir.2010.0097 and bladder samples of dbpAB infected mice were B. burgdorferi negative, half of the animals were PCR and/or culture positive in the joints. ThisTable 4. B. burgdorferi culture and PCR results of Experiment III at two weeks of infection. Culture Group 13 14 15 Strain/treatment Uninfected dbpAB/dbpAB dbpAB Ear 0/4 7/8 0/8 Bladder 0/4 8/8 0/8 Joint 0/4 8/8 3/8 PCR of joints flaB 0/4 8/8 3/8 ospA 0/4 8/8 3/8 Any method 0/4 8/8 4/doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121512.tPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121512 March 27,11 /DbpA and B Promote A.

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