E findings that will guide future research. This approach follows the

E findings that will guide future research. This approach Pamapimod supplier follows the Cochrane Collaboration advice on synthesis that advises that the type of analysis pursued IRC-022493MedChemExpress Setmelanotide should reflect the research question (Noyes Lewin 2011). Accordingly, the themes were addressed from the perspective of a programme implementer: how could the thematic content be best summarised so as to be most useful and descriptive to someone considering task shifting? This simple approach helped to reorganise the findings in a very pragmatic way. Perhaps naturally, the end result was not a list of `themes’, but rather a list of `synthesis statements’ that, we feel, speak directly to policy makers. This process resulted in three core synthesis statements, with eight underlying explanatory synthesis statements.ResultsCharacteristics of included studiesA detailed description of included studies is provided in Table 2, with full reference list attached in Appendix Table A2. In summary, 12 of 13 studies were relatively brief articles published in health and social sciences journals and one study was a PhD thesis. All except for one study were published within the last three years, which speaks to the fact that investigation of formal task shifting is a relatively new phenomenon. Studies covered a broad range of task-shifting interventions delivered through secondary and primary health facilities as well as community outreach work. The majority of the respondents were policy makers, facility managers and health workers, with fewer studies including perspectives of healthcare recipients. Although most of the studies examined formal task-shifting interventions, some explored informal task shifting. Most of the data were obtained through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs).When it came to delegation of clinical tasks, experiences of doctors and nurses were mixed. Nurses interviewed in?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewTable 2 Study summaries table# All levels Health workforce analysis All Interviews Variable Informal Policy makers, CSOsFirst author, year (country) Facility level Study type Tasks shifted InformantsSectorCadres involvedFormal or informalData collection methods Key findings by authorsBaine (2014) (Uganda)Multi-sectorCallaghan-Koru (2012) (Malawi)Primary care, PaediatricsCommunity outreachProgramme evaluationClinic nurses and midwives to CHWsCurative, preventative, data collectionFormalFacility managers, CHWsFGDs, InterviewsCataldo et al. (2015) (Zambia)HIVPrimary, Community outreachHealth workforce analysisClinic nurses to community care giversTreatment, monitoringFormalCBOs, CHWsInterviews, observation?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?Secondary, Primary General surgery, emergency obstetrics Formal Programme evaluation Physicians and nurses to Surgical Assistants Facility managers, physicians, nurses FGDs, interviews All levels Health workforce analysis All Variable Informal Policy makers, Facility managers, Health workers, nursing students FGDs, interviews Lower cadres perceived as incompetent and overworked Need for formal policy/support Task shifting perceived as expensive relative to supporting existing workforce Expanded access Reducing caseloads at health facilities Contrasting views on scope of CHW work Frustration on system constraints and community.E findings that will guide future research. This approach follows the Cochrane Collaboration advice on synthesis that advises that the type of analysis pursued should reflect the research question (Noyes Lewin 2011). Accordingly, the themes were addressed from the perspective of a programme implementer: how could the thematic content be best summarised so as to be most useful and descriptive to someone considering task shifting? This simple approach helped to reorganise the findings in a very pragmatic way. Perhaps naturally, the end result was not a list of `themes’, but rather a list of `synthesis statements’ that, we feel, speak directly to policy makers. This process resulted in three core synthesis statements, with eight underlying explanatory synthesis statements.ResultsCharacteristics of included studiesA detailed description of included studies is provided in Table 2, with full reference list attached in Appendix Table A2. In summary, 12 of 13 studies were relatively brief articles published in health and social sciences journals and one study was a PhD thesis. All except for one study were published within the last three years, which speaks to the fact that investigation of formal task shifting is a relatively new phenomenon. Studies covered a broad range of task-shifting interventions delivered through secondary and primary health facilities as well as community outreach work. The majority of the respondents were policy makers, facility managers and health workers, with fewer studies including perspectives of healthcare recipients. Although most of the studies examined formal task-shifting interventions, some explored informal task shifting. Most of the data were obtained through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs).When it came to delegation of clinical tasks, experiences of doctors and nurses were mixed. Nurses interviewed in?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewTable 2 Study summaries table# All levels Health workforce analysis All Interviews Variable Informal Policy makers, CSOsFirst author, year (country) Facility level Study type Tasks shifted InformantsSectorCadres involvedFormal or informalData collection methods Key findings by authorsBaine (2014) (Uganda)Multi-sectorCallaghan-Koru (2012) (Malawi)Primary care, PaediatricsCommunity outreachProgramme evaluationClinic nurses and midwives to CHWsCurative, preventative, data collectionFormalFacility managers, CHWsFGDs, InterviewsCataldo et al. (2015) (Zambia)HIVPrimary, Community outreachHealth workforce analysisClinic nurses to community care giversTreatment, monitoringFormalCBOs, CHWsInterviews, observation?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?Secondary, Primary General surgery, emergency obstetrics Formal Programme evaluation Physicians and nurses to Surgical Assistants Facility managers, physicians, nurses FGDs, interviews All levels Health workforce analysis All Variable Informal Policy makers, Facility managers, Health workers, nursing students FGDs, interviews Lower cadres perceived as incompetent and overworked Need for formal policy/support Task shifting perceived as expensive relative to supporting existing workforce Expanded access Reducing caseloads at health facilities Contrasting views on scope of CHW work Frustration on system constraints and community.

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