Or the CC group, consistent with our hypothesis that elevated expression

Or the CC group, consistent with our hypothesis that elevated expression of FLIPs in this cohort reflects infection with Mtb. However, not all Mtb infections lead to TB disease. The hHC identified as infected by TST and ELISPOT positivity who nonetheless remained healthy throughout the follow-up period had elevated expression of FLIPs but also an elevated percentage of MedChemExpress SB-497115GR peripheral blood of lymphocytes. This may reflect an active T cell response against Mtb. In the TB patients, elevated expression of FLIPs mRNA was also observed, but in this case, associated withApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 6. Peripheral blood gene expression as a function of ESAT-6 ELISPOT response in the clinical groups. (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs, (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges of mRNA levels normalized and expressed as a number of copies per 105 copies of mRNA for the housekeeping gene, HuPO. Significant differences in gene expression between clinical groups are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gFigure 7. Peripheral blood cell distribution as a function of the presence or absence of TB symptoms. (A) Monocytes, (B) neutrophils and (C) lymphocytes. The data shown are the mean cell percentage+SD. Significant differences in gene expressions between clinical groups are indicated. TB, index cases and household contacts presenting TB symptoms. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisTable 3. Hematological characteristics.Table 4. Apoptotic gene expression in MedChemExpress EGF816 individuals with TST.14 mm.CC 46 4.935 0.Cohort No. individuals RBC (610 /l) Hemoglobin concentration (g/l) MCV (m3) MCH (pg) MCHC (g/l) Leukocytes (6109/l) Neutrophiles ( ) Neutrophils (6109/l) Lymphocytes ( ) Lymphocytes (6109/l) Monocytes ( ) Monocytes (6109/L) Platelets (6109/l)IC 24 4.hHC 69 5.sHC 8 4.p valueMarkers TNFR1 TNFR2 FLIPs TB (n = 15) 276,1 241,4 104,4 67,18 D 381,3 771 141,5 83,32 Healthy (n = 42) D 178 71,19 124,2 47,39 406,5 232,8 194,6 86,p-value0,9639 0.039 0,3794 0,124.125 139.928 130.500 137.717 0.000427 79.958 26.750 82.971 27.957 81.250 27.375 85.435 28.478 0.002287 0.FLICE318.875 334.348 335.250 330.217 0.031949 6.250 56.958 3.583 29.333 1.750 7.583 0.333 6.870 48.768 3.377 40.464 2.623 6.116 0.290 6.375 50.375 2.750 39.375 2.375 10.375 0.625 5.826 48.591 3.000 37.909 2.067 6.727 0.222 0.130369 0.028549 0.323279 0.000726 0.000157 0.000079 0.TB = active TB and symptomatic (IC+sHC). SD = standard deviation. 15755315 The mean values are given for each clinical group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.t397.958 291.072 371.750 287.000 0.The mean values are given for each clinical group. MCHC: mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV: mean corpuscular volume; MCH: mean corpuscular hemoglobin (amount). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.ta significant upregulation of TNFR2 gene expression and an increased ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes. The fact that this ratio reverts to that seen in healthy individuals after successful treatment of TB is consistent with the idea that the T cell population may be inhibited in active TB. The contacts who developed TB-like symptoms in the course of follow-up (sHC) showed an intermediate pattern, with levels of FLIPs expression consistent with infection, and an elevated monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, but without significantly increased TNFR2 expression. These results confirm and expand earlier work. In studies of TB patients, their household contacts and community con.Or the CC group, consistent with our hypothesis that elevated expression of FLIPs in this cohort reflects infection with Mtb. However, not all Mtb infections lead to TB disease. The hHC identified as infected by TST and ELISPOT positivity who nonetheless remained healthy throughout the follow-up period had elevated expression of FLIPs but also an elevated percentage of peripheral blood of lymphocytes. This may reflect an active T cell response against Mtb. In the TB patients, elevated expression of FLIPs mRNA was also observed, but in this case, associated withApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisFigure 6. Peripheral blood gene expression as a function of ESAT-6 ELISPOT response in the clinical groups. (A) TNFR1, (B) TNFR2, (C) FLIPs, (D) FLICE. The data shown are the median and ranges of mRNA levels normalized and expressed as a number of copies per 105 copies of mRNA for the housekeeping gene, HuPO. Significant differences in gene expression between clinical groups are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gFigure 7. Peripheral blood cell distribution as a function of the presence or absence of TB symptoms. (A) Monocytes, (B) neutrophils and (C) lymphocytes. The data shown are the mean cell percentage+SD. Significant differences in gene expressions between clinical groups are indicated. TB, index cases and household contacts presenting TB symptoms. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.gApoptosis-Related Gene Expression in TuberculosisTable 3. Hematological characteristics.Table 4. Apoptotic gene expression in individuals with TST.14 mm.CC 46 4.935 0.Cohort No. individuals RBC (610 /l) Hemoglobin concentration (g/l) MCV (m3) MCH (pg) MCHC (g/l) Leukocytes (6109/l) Neutrophiles ( ) Neutrophils (6109/l) Lymphocytes ( ) Lymphocytes (6109/l) Monocytes ( ) Monocytes (6109/L) Platelets (6109/l)IC 24 4.hHC 69 5.sHC 8 4.p valueMarkers TNFR1 TNFR2 FLIPs TB (n = 15) 276,1 241,4 104,4 67,18 D 381,3 771 141,5 83,32 Healthy (n = 42) D 178 71,19 124,2 47,39 406,5 232,8 194,6 86,p-value0,9639 0.039 0,3794 0,124.125 139.928 130.500 137.717 0.000427 79.958 26.750 82.971 27.957 81.250 27.375 85.435 28.478 0.002287 0.FLICE318.875 334.348 335.250 330.217 0.031949 6.250 56.958 3.583 29.333 1.750 7.583 0.333 6.870 48.768 3.377 40.464 2.623 6.116 0.290 6.375 50.375 2.750 39.375 2.375 10.375 0.625 5.826 48.591 3.000 37.909 2.067 6.727 0.222 0.130369 0.028549 0.323279 0.000726 0.000157 0.000079 0.TB = active TB and symptomatic (IC+sHC). SD = standard deviation. 15755315 The mean values are given for each clinical group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.t397.958 291.072 371.750 287.000 0.The mean values are given for each clinical group. MCHC: mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV: mean corpuscular volume; MCH: mean corpuscular hemoglobin (amount). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061154.ta significant upregulation of TNFR2 gene expression and an increased ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes. The fact that this ratio reverts to that seen in healthy individuals after successful treatment of TB is consistent with the idea that the T cell population may be inhibited in active TB. The contacts who developed TB-like symptoms in the course of follow-up (sHC) showed an intermediate pattern, with levels of FLIPs expression consistent with infection, and an elevated monocyte to lymphocyte ratio, but without significantly increased TNFR2 expression. These results confirm and expand earlier work. In studies of TB patients, their household contacts and community con.

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