Oundary conditions were applied throughout the system. These prepared systems were

Oundary conditions were applied throughout the system. These prepared systems were equilibrated with the GLPG0634 site default Desmond protocol that comprises a series of restrained minimizations and MDS. Two rounds of steepest descent minimization were performed with a maximum of 2000 steps and a harmonic ?restraint of 50 kcal/mol/per A2 on all solute atoms followed by a series of four MDS. The first simulation was run for 12 ps at a temperature of 10 K in the NVT (constant number of particles, volume, and temperature) ensemble with solute heavy atoms ?restrained with force constant of 50 kcal/mol/A 2. The second simulation was similar to the first except it was run in the NPT (constant number of particles, pressure, and temperature) ensemble. A 24 ps simulation followed with the temperature raised to 300 K in the NPT ensemble and with the force constant retained. The last one was a 24 ps simulation at 300 K in the NPT ensemble with all restraints removed. This default equilibration was followed by a 5000 ps NPT simulation to equilibrate the system. A 30 ns NPT production simulation was then run and coordinates were saved in every 2 ps of time intervals. The total trajectory of MD simulation was 30 ns. MD Simulation was analyzed using the analytical tools in the Desmond package. In MD quality analysis, potential energy of the protein as well as total energy of the entire system was calculated. The lowest potential energy conformations were then used for comparative analysis of peptide bound and unbound structures. Trajectories of peptide bound complexes and unbound HtrA2 were then compared based on their overall calculated RMSD (root mean square GNE-7915 site deviation), domain wise RMSD and RMSF (root mean square fluctuation) values and were plotted using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA).Production of Recombinant HtrA2 Wild Type, its Mutants and DomainsMature (D133 HtrA2) with C-terminal his6-tag in pET-20b (Addgene, Cambridge, MA) was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS. N-SPD, comprising N-terminal and serine protease domains (residues 1?10) of HtrA2 was sub cloned into pMALc5E-TEV using appropriate primers. Point mutations were introduced into pET-20b D133 HtrA2 by PCR using primer sets that included mutations for residues N216A, S219A, E292A, E296A and F16D. N-SPD clone and these mutants were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein expression was induced by culturing cells at 18uC for 20 18325633 h in presence of 0.2 mM isopropyl-1-thio-D-galactopyranoside. Cells were lysed by sonication and the centrifuged supernatants for HtrA2 and its mutants were incubated with pre-equilibrated nickel-IDA beads for 1 h at room temperature. Protein purification was done using Ni-affinity chromatography as described earlier [19]. Eluted protein was further purified using gel permeation chromatography. N-SPD was purified using amylose resin where the bound protein was eluted using 10 mM maltose and was subjected to TEV protease cleavage [46] to remove maltose binding protein (MBP). N-SPD was further separated from MBP by gel filtration using Superdex 75 column. All purified proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE forMD Simulation (MDS) and AnalysisAfter analyzing the docking results, best HtrA2-peptide complexes based on Glide XP score and E-model value were used for Molecular Dynamic Simulation which was performed using Desmond 2010 [22] software package. Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations (OPLS) [41] all-atom force field was used to analyze mode.Oundary conditions were applied throughout the system. These prepared systems were equilibrated with the default Desmond protocol that comprises a series of restrained minimizations and MDS. Two rounds of steepest descent minimization were performed with a maximum of 2000 steps and a harmonic ?restraint of 50 kcal/mol/per A2 on all solute atoms followed by a series of four MDS. The first simulation was run for 12 ps at a temperature of 10 K in the NVT (constant number of particles, volume, and temperature) ensemble with solute heavy atoms ?restrained with force constant of 50 kcal/mol/A 2. The second simulation was similar to the first except it was run in the NPT (constant number of particles, pressure, and temperature) ensemble. A 24 ps simulation followed with the temperature raised to 300 K in the NPT ensemble and with the force constant retained. The last one was a 24 ps simulation at 300 K in the NPT ensemble with all restraints removed. This default equilibration was followed by a 5000 ps NPT simulation to equilibrate the system. A 30 ns NPT production simulation was then run and coordinates were saved in every 2 ps of time intervals. The total trajectory of MD simulation was 30 ns. MD Simulation was analyzed using the analytical tools in the Desmond package. In MD quality analysis, potential energy of the protein as well as total energy of the entire system was calculated. The lowest potential energy conformations were then used for comparative analysis of peptide bound and unbound structures. Trajectories of peptide bound complexes and unbound HtrA2 were then compared based on their overall calculated RMSD (root mean square deviation), domain wise RMSD and RMSF (root mean square fluctuation) values and were plotted using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA).Production of Recombinant HtrA2 Wild Type, its Mutants and DomainsMature (D133 HtrA2) with C-terminal his6-tag in pET-20b (Addgene, Cambridge, MA) was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS. N-SPD, comprising N-terminal and serine protease domains (residues 1?10) of HtrA2 was sub cloned into pMALc5E-TEV using appropriate primers. Point mutations were introduced into pET-20b D133 HtrA2 by PCR using primer sets that included mutations for residues N216A, S219A, E292A, E296A and F16D. N-SPD clone and these mutants were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein expression was induced by culturing cells at 18uC for 20 18325633 h in presence of 0.2 mM isopropyl-1-thio-D-galactopyranoside. Cells were lysed by sonication and the centrifuged supernatants for HtrA2 and its mutants were incubated with pre-equilibrated nickel-IDA beads for 1 h at room temperature. Protein purification was done using Ni-affinity chromatography as described earlier [19]. Eluted protein was further purified using gel permeation chromatography. N-SPD was purified using amylose resin where the bound protein was eluted using 10 mM maltose and was subjected to TEV protease cleavage [46] to remove maltose binding protein (MBP). N-SPD was further separated from MBP by gel filtration using Superdex 75 column. All purified proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE forMD Simulation (MDS) and AnalysisAfter analyzing the docking results, best HtrA2-peptide complexes based on Glide XP score and E-model value were used for Molecular Dynamic Simulation which was performed using Desmond 2010 [22] software package. Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations (OPLS) [41] all-atom force field was used to analyze mode.

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