Y to the other agents [8?0]. There are also concerns about the

Y to the other agents [8?0]. There are also concerns about the long-term safety of tenofovir, which is associated with significant loss of renal function in HIV treatment [11]. HBV viral replication is a key driver for disease progression and is associated with the development of cirrhosis and HCC [12]. The initial goal of treatment is to suppress viral replication; thereafter, sustained (on-treatment) or maintained (off-treatment) suppression of circulating HBV DNA is associated with improved serological responses and long-term outcomes [13,14]. The emergence of drug-resistant HBV results in breakthrough viremia leading to hepatitis and liver disease progression. To ensure good long-term outcomes, the conservation of HBV DNA suppression is essential. Early virologic response, particularly at Week 24, is associated with better long-term outcomes in chronic HBV, while detectable HBV DNA at Week 24 is associated with a higher incidence of ontherapy drug resistance [14,15]. This predictive association has lead an international group of experts to propose the so-called “Roadmap” concept ?a therapeutic algorithm for the conditional intensification of nucleoside monotherapy based on early virologic response [16]. In the Roadmap, monotherapy is continued if plasma virus is undetectable (HBV DNA ,300 copies/mL) at Week 24; while for those with detectable HBV DNA defined options exist for either intensification or continued monotherapy. The Roadmap principle is widely accepted in clinical practice [17], but has yet to be prospectively evaluated. In this study, we sought to confirm prospectively the clinical utility of the Roadmap by investigating whether the conditional intensification of telbivudine monotherapy with tenofovir, when indicated by the algorithm, results in effective virologic suppression in nucleosidenaive, HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. We present 52-week primary efficacy and safety data.Ethics StatementWritten informed consent was obtained and eligibility assessed at a Roxadustat screening visit up to 6 weeks before the first dose of telbivudine. The study was approved by the institutional review boards/independent ethics committees of each study center and was conducted in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and in compliance with all International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice Guidelines and local regulatory requirements.PatientsThis study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00651209) had a multinational, single-arm, open-label design. Male and female adults ( 18 years) were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009 from 17 clinical centers in Argentina (n = 3), Brazil (4), China [Hong Kong] (2), Germany (4) and Thailand (4). Major inclusion criteria were: documented chronic hepatitis B with detectable HBsAg at screening and for at least 6 months prior; HBeAg-positive (HBeAg+) and HBeAb-negative at screening; serum HBV DNA 5 log10 copies/mL by COBAS Amplicor HBV TER199 biological activity MonitorH assay (Roche Molecular Systems Inc., Pleasanton, California); screening alanine aminotransferase (ALT) between 1.36 and 106 the upper limit of normal (ULN) with evidence of chronic liver inflammation ( 2 elevated ALT or aspartate aminotransferase values over at least 6 months). Exclusion criteria included: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus or HIV; hepatic decompensation; any prior nucleoside treatment or interferon/immunomodulator treatment in the 6 months before screening, or chronic r.Y to the other agents [8?0]. There are also concerns about the long-term safety of tenofovir, which is associated with significant loss of renal function in HIV treatment [11]. HBV viral replication is a key driver for disease progression and is associated with the development of cirrhosis and HCC [12]. The initial goal of treatment is to suppress viral replication; thereafter, sustained (on-treatment) or maintained (off-treatment) suppression of circulating HBV DNA is associated with improved serological responses and long-term outcomes [13,14]. The emergence of drug-resistant HBV results in breakthrough viremia leading to hepatitis and liver disease progression. To ensure good long-term outcomes, the conservation of HBV DNA suppression is essential. Early virologic response, particularly at Week 24, is associated with better long-term outcomes in chronic HBV, while detectable HBV DNA at Week 24 is associated with a higher incidence of ontherapy drug resistance [14,15]. This predictive association has lead an international group of experts to propose the so-called “Roadmap” concept ?a therapeutic algorithm for the conditional intensification of nucleoside monotherapy based on early virologic response [16]. In the Roadmap, monotherapy is continued if plasma virus is undetectable (HBV DNA ,300 copies/mL) at Week 24; while for those with detectable HBV DNA defined options exist for either intensification or continued monotherapy. The Roadmap principle is widely accepted in clinical practice [17], but has yet to be prospectively evaluated. In this study, we sought to confirm prospectively the clinical utility of the Roadmap by investigating whether the conditional intensification of telbivudine monotherapy with tenofovir, when indicated by the algorithm, results in effective virologic suppression in nucleosidenaive, HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. We present 52-week primary efficacy and safety data.Ethics StatementWritten informed consent was obtained and eligibility assessed at a screening visit up to 6 weeks before the first dose of telbivudine. The study was approved by the institutional review boards/independent ethics committees of each study center and was conducted in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and in compliance with all International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice Guidelines and local regulatory requirements.PatientsThis study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00651209) had a multinational, single-arm, open-label design. Male and female adults ( 18 years) were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009 from 17 clinical centers in Argentina (n = 3), Brazil (4), China [Hong Kong] (2), Germany (4) and Thailand (4). Major inclusion criteria were: documented chronic hepatitis B with detectable HBsAg at screening and for at least 6 months prior; HBeAg-positive (HBeAg+) and HBeAb-negative at screening; serum HBV DNA 5 log10 copies/mL by COBAS Amplicor HBV MonitorH assay (Roche Molecular Systems Inc., Pleasanton, California); screening alanine aminotransferase (ALT) between 1.36 and 106 the upper limit of normal (ULN) with evidence of chronic liver inflammation ( 2 elevated ALT or aspartate aminotransferase values over at least 6 months). Exclusion criteria included: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus or HIV; hepatic decompensation; any prior nucleoside treatment or interferon/immunomodulator treatment in the 6 months before screening, or chronic r.

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