Fluenced either of these processes, we measured levels of APP and

Fluenced either of these processes, we measured levels of APP and b-CTF by Western blot in male mice exposed to 100 cGy 56Fe particles. As shown in Figures 3E and 3F, no changes in levels of these two species were observed relative to unirradiated controls. This suggests that the observed increases in Ab were not due to increased APP production or processing of amyloid. The increase in Ab observed by IHC and ELISA, but lack of evidence for alteration of amyloid processing, directed us to investigate other mechanisms. Due to lack of change in the female mice we elected to focus on samples from males irradiated at 100 cGy for these analyses. SQ 34676 microglia are principle players in CNS inflammation, which has been proposed to be an important driver of amyloid deposition. In addition, they are implicated in phagocytosis and control of Ab [28]. We sought to identify if there was a change in the association of microglia with plaques or alterations in their level of activation that might relate to increased plaque accumulation following radiation (Fig. 4). CD68 is a commonly used marker that is upregulated in activated microglia [29] and is indicative of a phagocytic state. We did not observe any increase in CD68 area, normalized to plaque area or total Iba-1+ area, after 100 cGy radiation (Fig. 4A, B). Similarly, there was no effect of radiation on total Iba-1+ microglia area associated with plaques (Fig. 4C). Figure 4D contains representative images of CD68+/Iba-1+ microglia around plaques. General microglial morphology based on Iba-1 staining appeared similar in control and irradiated brain (Fig. 4E). Moreover, there was no ENMD-2076 chemical information significant change (p = .19) in cortical area covered by GFAP (Fig. 4F). To measure the ability of microglia to degrade Ab, we quantified one of the key enzymes associated in that process, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) [30] (Fig. 4G). There was no statistical difference between the control and irradiated mice when analyzed with a Student’s t-test (p = .22). Lastly, we investigated the amount of the inflammatory cytokine TNFa (Fig. 4H). We did not detect any difference between irradiated and control levels (p = .39). TakenSpace Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 1. Effect of 56Fe particle radiation on memory and cognition using contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests. (A) Fear conditioning results quantified as percent time freezing. (B) No significant difference was found between any groups in freezing to a novel context or a tone stimulus. (C) Novel object recognition test using the recognition index generated for time spent with the novel object. All data is compared within the respective gender. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. Graphs show means 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per condition at each dose. **P,.01, ***P,.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gtogether, these results demonstrate no clear evidence of increased glial activation 6 months after 100 cGy radiation exposure. Due to the importance of Ab clearance out of the brain through the BBB [20] we next examined vascular alterations in the irradiated animals. Sections were stained with ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial activation (Fig. 5). ICAM-1 is also thought to be an indirect marker of CNS damage or inflammation that we have previously demonstrated in irradiated mouse CNS [4,31]. Relative to control tissue, a significant increase in ICAM-1 total stainin.Fluenced either of these processes, we measured levels of APP and b-CTF by Western blot in male mice exposed to 100 cGy 56Fe particles. As shown in Figures 3E and 3F, no changes in levels of these two species were observed relative to unirradiated controls. This suggests that the observed increases in Ab were not due to increased APP production or processing of amyloid. The increase in Ab observed by IHC and ELISA, but lack of evidence for alteration of amyloid processing, directed us to investigate other mechanisms. Due to lack of change in the female mice we elected to focus on samples from males irradiated at 100 cGy for these analyses. Microglia are principle players in CNS inflammation, which has been proposed to be an important driver of amyloid deposition. In addition, they are implicated in phagocytosis and control of Ab [28]. We sought to identify if there was a change in the association of microglia with plaques or alterations in their level of activation that might relate to increased plaque accumulation following radiation (Fig. 4). CD68 is a commonly used marker that is upregulated in activated microglia [29] and is indicative of a phagocytic state. We did not observe any increase in CD68 area, normalized to plaque area or total Iba-1+ area, after 100 cGy radiation (Fig. 4A, B). Similarly, there was no effect of radiation on total Iba-1+ microglia area associated with plaques (Fig. 4C). Figure 4D contains representative images of CD68+/Iba-1+ microglia around plaques. General microglial morphology based on Iba-1 staining appeared similar in control and irradiated brain (Fig. 4E). Moreover, there was no significant change (p = .19) in cortical area covered by GFAP (Fig. 4F). To measure the ability of microglia to degrade Ab, we quantified one of the key enzymes associated in that process, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) [30] (Fig. 4G). There was no statistical difference between the control and irradiated mice when analyzed with a Student’s t-test (p = .22). Lastly, we investigated the amount of the inflammatory cytokine TNFa (Fig. 4H). We did not detect any difference between irradiated and control levels (p = .39). TakenSpace Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 1. Effect of 56Fe particle radiation on memory and cognition using contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition tests. (A) Fear conditioning results quantified as percent time freezing. (B) No significant difference was found between any groups in freezing to a novel context or a tone stimulus. (C) Novel object recognition test using the recognition index generated for time spent with the novel object. All data is compared within the respective gender. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. Graphs show means 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per condition at each dose. **P,.01, ***P,.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gtogether, these results demonstrate no clear evidence of increased glial activation 6 months after 100 cGy radiation exposure. Due to the importance of Ab clearance out of the brain through the BBB [20] we next examined vascular alterations in the irradiated animals. Sections were stained with ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial activation (Fig. 5). ICAM-1 is also thought to be an indirect marker of CNS damage or inflammation that we have previously demonstrated in irradiated mouse CNS [4,31]. Relative to control tissue, a significant increase in ICAM-1 total stainin.

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