On of class 1 integrons using the same conditions as described before

On of class 1 integrons using the same conditions as described before [17]. Amplification of SXT integrase was carried out using the forward primer 59ATGGCGTTATGAGTTAGCTC- 39 and the reverse primer 59-GCGAAGATCATGCATAGAC- 39. For amplification of SXT integrase, conditions used for PCR were similar as described earlier [17] except that annealing was carried out at 57uC for 30 s and extension was carried out at 72uC for 1 min. DMAMA-PCR was carried out to screen for the type of ctxB gene present using the primers ctxB-F3, ctxB-F4, Fw-con, Rv-El Tor and Rv-Cla as described recently [23]. PCR amplifications for four topoisomerase genes (gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE) were carried out as described earlier [18]. PCR reactions were performed using a PTC-225 DNA Engine TetradTM Cycler (MJ Research Inc., MA, USA) and Pfu (Fermentas International Inc., Ontario, Canada) or Taq DNA polymerases (Bangalore Genei, Bangalore, India).Bacterial ConjugationTwo representative SXT-positive isolates (IDH01572 and IDH01738) were tested for their ability to transfer SXT-borne resistance traits to the recipient strain in conjugation experiments according to the published protocols [18]. SXT-negative strain (IDH02095) was included as control in this experiment using the same recipient. The strains IDH01738 (streptomycin resistant), IDH01572 (streptomycin resistant) and buy BI 78D3 IDH02095 (ampicilin and nalidixic acid resistant) were used as donors while E. coli XL1-Blue (tetracycline, nalidixic acid resistant and streptomycin sensitive) was used as recipient. Briefly, the recipient and donor strains were mixed in a ratio of 2:1 on a sterile 0.45 mm nylon membrane (Nytran N, Whatman, PA, USA) and incubated overnight for mating on LB agar at 37uC. The transconjugants were selected on LB agar plates buy Acetovanillone containing appropriate antibiotics. For conjugation between IDH01738, IDH01572 and XL1-Blue, streptomycin (20 mg/mL) and tetracycline (25 mg/mL) were used. For conjugation between IDH02095 and XL1-Blue, selection of ampicillin (25 mg/mL) and tetracycline (25 mg/mL) was used. The transconjugants were confirmed for their authenticity by determination of their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and by PCR for SXT integrase using the donor and recipient strains as controls in both these assays.Methods Bacterial Strains, Genomic and Plasmid DNA IsolationOne hundred and nineteen isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were obtained from patients with acute cholera admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH), Kolkata, India, in 2009 and these patient samples were anonymized. The participants provided their written consent for participating in the study and in case of children, written consent was obtained from their parents. The consent procedure was approved by the Institutional Ethical Clearance Committee of National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata, from where the samples were obtained for this study. The study was also approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC) of Indian Institute of Advanced Research, Gandhinagar, and the Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM) governed by guidelines laid down by Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India. V. cholerae strains MO10, O1 El Tor N16961, O1 classical Inaba strain 569B were used as controls in various experiments. Escherichia coli XL-1 Blue cells were used as recipient in conjugation experiments. Genomic and plasmid DNA isolations were done as described previously [21].DNA Sequence AnalysisDNA se.On of class 1 integrons using the same conditions as described before [17]. Amplification of SXT integrase was carried out using the forward primer 59ATGGCGTTATGAGTTAGCTC- 39 and the reverse primer 59-GCGAAGATCATGCATAGAC- 39. For amplification of SXT integrase, conditions used for PCR were similar as described earlier [17] except that annealing was carried out at 57uC for 30 s and extension was carried out at 72uC for 1 min. DMAMA-PCR was carried out to screen for the type of ctxB gene present using the primers ctxB-F3, ctxB-F4, Fw-con, Rv-El Tor and Rv-Cla as described recently [23]. PCR amplifications for four topoisomerase genes (gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE) were carried out as described earlier [18]. PCR reactions were performed using a PTC-225 DNA Engine TetradTM Cycler (MJ Research Inc., MA, USA) and Pfu (Fermentas International Inc., Ontario, Canada) or Taq DNA polymerases (Bangalore Genei, Bangalore, India).Bacterial ConjugationTwo representative SXT-positive isolates (IDH01572 and IDH01738) were tested for their ability to transfer SXT-borne resistance traits to the recipient strain in conjugation experiments according to the published protocols [18]. SXT-negative strain (IDH02095) was included as control in this experiment using the same recipient. The strains IDH01738 (streptomycin resistant), IDH01572 (streptomycin resistant) and IDH02095 (ampicilin and nalidixic acid resistant) were used as donors while E. coli XL1-Blue (tetracycline, nalidixic acid resistant and streptomycin sensitive) was used as recipient. Briefly, the recipient and donor strains were mixed in a ratio of 2:1 on a sterile 0.45 mm nylon membrane (Nytran N, Whatman, PA, USA) and incubated overnight for mating on LB agar at 37uC. The transconjugants were selected on LB agar plates containing appropriate antibiotics. For conjugation between IDH01738, IDH01572 and XL1-Blue, streptomycin (20 mg/mL) and tetracycline (25 mg/mL) were used. For conjugation between IDH02095 and XL1-Blue, selection of ampicillin (25 mg/mL) and tetracycline (25 mg/mL) was used. The transconjugants were confirmed for their authenticity by determination of their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and by PCR for SXT integrase using the donor and recipient strains as controls in both these assays.Methods Bacterial Strains, Genomic and Plasmid DNA IsolationOne hundred and nineteen isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were obtained from patients with acute cholera admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH), Kolkata, India, in 2009 and these patient samples were anonymized. The participants provided their written consent for participating in the study and in case of children, written consent was obtained from their parents. The consent procedure was approved by the Institutional Ethical Clearance Committee of National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata, from where the samples were obtained for this study. The study was also approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC) of Indian Institute of Advanced Research, Gandhinagar, and the Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM) governed by guidelines laid down by Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India. V. cholerae strains MO10, O1 El Tor N16961, O1 classical Inaba strain 569B were used as controls in various experiments. Escherichia coli XL-1 Blue cells were used as recipient in conjugation experiments. Genomic and plasmid DNA isolations were done as described previously [21].DNA Sequence AnalysisDNA se.

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