Cell layer, fibrous astrocyte in the white matter, and protoplasmic astrocyte

Cell layer, fibrous astrocyte in the white matter, and protoplasmic astrocyte in the granule layer [8]. By utilizing this specific characteristic, we can easily identify those astrocytes judging from their morphologies and locations, therefore we focused on developing cerebellum as a good model to examine glial development. However, how these different types of cerebellar astrocytes are generated remains poorly understood. We previously have shown that cells with high CD44 expression (CD44high cells), purified from the large-cell fraction (enriched in glia) of mouse postnatal day 3 (P3) cerebellum, were astrocyte-restricted precursor cells in vitro [9].CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in cell?matrix adhesion and matrix-mediated cell signaling [10]. CD44 is known as a receptor for extracellular components such as hyaluronic acid [11] and osteopontin [12]. CD44 can be cleaved by ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) protease, matrix metalloproteinase, and c-secretase, resulting in the release of an extracellular domain of CD44 in soluble form and an intracellular domain of CD44 that functions as a transcription factor in the PS 1145 custom synthesis nucleus [13?5]. CD44 is involved in several cellular processes including cell migration, survival, differentiation, and motility [11] and is known as a cancer stem cell marker [16,17]. CD44 is expressed in glioma in the central nervous system [18,19]. It is also expressed in astrocyte-lineage cells in a dorsal domain of the rodent embryonic spinal cord [20,21], Mueller glia-committed retinal AZ876 progenitor cells [22], and at a low level, in astrocytes in the cortex and spinal cord [23?7]. On the other hand, oligodendrocytes express detectable levels of CD44 only in pathological situations [28]. CNP-CD44 transgenic mice with overexpression of CD44 in glial progenitors had decreased oligodendrocyte maturation [20]. These results indicate that CD44 has also important roles in oligodendrocyte differentiation, in addition to its roles in astrocytes. Although we have isolated candidates of astrocyte precursor cells from the developing cerebellum on the basis ofCD44 Expression in Developing Cerebellumtheir expression of CD44 as described above [9], it is unclear whether CD44 is expressed only in astrocyte-lineage cells in the cerebellum during development. In this study, we clarified the spatial and temporal expression profiles of CD44 during development of the mouse cerebellum by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS).CD44high and CD44low Cell Isolation by FACS and Neurosphere AssayCD44high cells and CD44low cells were isolated as previously described [9]. C57BL6/NCr mouse cerebellum at P3 was cut into small pieces and incubated at 37uC for 30 min in papain solution (Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) containing 16.5 U/ ml papain, 200 mg/ml L-cysteine, and 0.008 deoxyribonuclease). The tissue was rinsed in DPBS containing 1.5 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.008 deoxyribonuclease and triturated in the same solution. The cells were centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature and suspended in DPBS containing 10 mg/ml BSA and centrifuged again. The tissue was then resuspended in washing buffer (DPBS containing 0.02 BSA and 5 mg/ml insulin) and passed through a cell strainer, and centrifuged again. The cell suspension was loaded onto a step gradient of 35 and 60 Percoll (GE Healthcare UK Ltd., Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, U.Cell layer, fibrous astrocyte in the white matter, and protoplasmic astrocyte in the granule layer [8]. By utilizing this specific characteristic, we can easily identify those astrocytes judging from their morphologies and locations, therefore we focused on developing cerebellum as a good model to examine glial development. However, how these different types of cerebellar astrocytes are generated remains poorly understood. We previously have shown that cells with high CD44 expression (CD44high cells), purified from the large-cell fraction (enriched in glia) of mouse postnatal day 3 (P3) cerebellum, were astrocyte-restricted precursor cells in vitro [9].CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in cell?matrix adhesion and matrix-mediated cell signaling [10]. CD44 is known as a receptor for extracellular components such as hyaluronic acid [11] and osteopontin [12]. CD44 can be cleaved by ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) protease, matrix metalloproteinase, and c-secretase, resulting in the release of an extracellular domain of CD44 in soluble form and an intracellular domain of CD44 that functions as a transcription factor in the nucleus [13?5]. CD44 is involved in several cellular processes including cell migration, survival, differentiation, and motility [11] and is known as a cancer stem cell marker [16,17]. CD44 is expressed in glioma in the central nervous system [18,19]. It is also expressed in astrocyte-lineage cells in a dorsal domain of the rodent embryonic spinal cord [20,21], Mueller glia-committed retinal progenitor cells [22], and at a low level, in astrocytes in the cortex and spinal cord [23?7]. On the other hand, oligodendrocytes express detectable levels of CD44 only in pathological situations [28]. CNP-CD44 transgenic mice with overexpression of CD44 in glial progenitors had decreased oligodendrocyte maturation [20]. These results indicate that CD44 has also important roles in oligodendrocyte differentiation, in addition to its roles in astrocytes. Although we have isolated candidates of astrocyte precursor cells from the developing cerebellum on the basis ofCD44 Expression in Developing Cerebellumtheir expression of CD44 as described above [9], it is unclear whether CD44 is expressed only in astrocyte-lineage cells in the cerebellum during development. In this study, we clarified the spatial and temporal expression profiles of CD44 during development of the mouse cerebellum by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS).CD44high and CD44low Cell Isolation by FACS and Neurosphere AssayCD44high cells and CD44low cells were isolated as previously described [9]. C57BL6/NCr mouse cerebellum at P3 was cut into small pieces and incubated at 37uC for 30 min in papain solution (Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) containing 16.5 U/ ml papain, 200 mg/ml L-cysteine, and 0.008 deoxyribonuclease). The tissue was rinsed in DPBS containing 1.5 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.008 deoxyribonuclease and triturated in the same solution. The cells were centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature and suspended in DPBS containing 10 mg/ml BSA and centrifuged again. The tissue was then resuspended in washing buffer (DPBS containing 0.02 BSA and 5 mg/ml insulin) and passed through a cell strainer, and centrifuged again. The cell suspension was loaded onto a step gradient of 35 and 60 Percoll (GE Healthcare UK Ltd., Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, U.

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