Ffected the biosynthesis of protein and nucleic acid in the cells

Ffected the biosynthesis of protein and nucleic acid in the cells at the initial phase. However, B. subtilis could recover its growth in the late phase because of the congeries of the cells in the culture (data not shown here). It is suggested that the novel antibactin should stimulate the cells to secrete more and more OH to disturb the growth and prevent the cells to congest simultaneously. The transcriptome analyses indicate that fusaricidin induced sets of genes shown previously to be induced by exposure to membrane-active compounds. The TCS was significantly induced by fusaricidin, and genetic studies indicated that SigA was sensitive to this change. These results were consistent with the notion that this type of antibiotic acts 18334597 primarily on the cell membrane [33]. Apparently, B. subtilis is one of microorganisms which is able toalter its gene expression pattern in response to fusaricidin to develop resistance to antibiotic treatment and some other environmental changing.Supporting InformationTable S1 Gene Differentially expressed genes at 20 and170 min. (XLSX)Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: B-CY. Performed the experiments: YZ W-BY C-YY. Analyzed the data: YZ C-YY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: W-BY. Wrote the paper: B-CY YZ.
Homooligomeric proteins have large interface areas between the subunits resulting in stable complexes [1?]. Because the molecular functions of homooligomers often require their complete oligomeric forms, the overall structure of a homooligomer may help understand its molecular function [5,6]. It is known that the complex structure of a homooligomer often assumes a symmetric structure [7], with the subunits arranged in either a `close-packed’ (or dihedral) form or a `ring’ form [8]. The close-packed form has n/2-fold rotational symmetry around one rotational axis (designated as Dn where n is the number of subunits; axis 1 in Figure 1B) and 2-fold rotational symmetry around the other rotational axes (axes 2? in Figure 1B) perpendicular to the first rotational axis. Oligomers with this form contain an even number of subunits. In a statistical analysis of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [9] (see Materials and Methods), we found that homooligomers composed of even numbers of subunits are dominant (Figure 1C) because of the abundance of the closepacked oligomers. In the close-packed form, the subunit interfaces are arranged in a face-to-face manner, and every structural feature or interaction is repeated twice. It was pointed 24786787 out by Monod et al. [10] that the effect of a single mutation in complexes with the close-packed form may be much greater than in complexes without dihedral symmetry. This effect may allow such complexes to evolve more readily by the efficient generation of favorable interactions, and this prediction has been supported by recent docking-simulation studies [11?3].In Ornipressin cost contrast, less attention has been paid to the minor population of ring oligomers having simple SC66 web n-fold rotational symmetry (designated Cn; Figure 1A). In our statistical analysis of the PDB, we found that such ring complexes may contain even or odd numbers of subunits, and there is no bias toward even numbers (Figure 1D). Ring-shaped oligomers have a wide variety of symmetry. Prime numbers of subunits give the “lowest” symmetry, and highly composite numbers having many divisors (such as 6 and 12) give the “highest” symmetry. A question then arises whether there is a biological or physical re.Ffected the biosynthesis of protein and nucleic acid in the cells at the initial phase. However, B. subtilis could recover its growth in the late phase because of the congeries of the cells in the culture (data not shown here). It is suggested that the novel antibactin should stimulate the cells to secrete more and more OH to disturb the growth and prevent the cells to congest simultaneously. The transcriptome analyses indicate that fusaricidin induced sets of genes shown previously to be induced by exposure to membrane-active compounds. The TCS was significantly induced by fusaricidin, and genetic studies indicated that SigA was sensitive to this change. These results were consistent with the notion that this type of antibiotic acts 18334597 primarily on the cell membrane [33]. Apparently, B. subtilis is one of microorganisms which is able toalter its gene expression pattern in response to fusaricidin to develop resistance to antibiotic treatment and some other environmental changing.Supporting InformationTable S1 Gene Differentially expressed genes at 20 and170 min. (XLSX)Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: B-CY. Performed the experiments: YZ W-BY C-YY. Analyzed the data: YZ C-YY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: W-BY. Wrote the paper: B-CY YZ.
Homooligomeric proteins have large interface areas between the subunits resulting in stable complexes [1?]. Because the molecular functions of homooligomers often require their complete oligomeric forms, the overall structure of a homooligomer may help understand its molecular function [5,6]. It is known that the complex structure of a homooligomer often assumes a symmetric structure [7], with the subunits arranged in either a `close-packed’ (or dihedral) form or a `ring’ form [8]. The close-packed form has n/2-fold rotational symmetry around one rotational axis (designated as Dn where n is the number of subunits; axis 1 in Figure 1B) and 2-fold rotational symmetry around the other rotational axes (axes 2? in Figure 1B) perpendicular to the first rotational axis. Oligomers with this form contain an even number of subunits. In a statistical analysis of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [9] (see Materials and Methods), we found that homooligomers composed of even numbers of subunits are dominant (Figure 1C) because of the abundance of the closepacked oligomers. In the close-packed form, the subunit interfaces are arranged in a face-to-face manner, and every structural feature or interaction is repeated twice. It was pointed 24786787 out by Monod et al. [10] that the effect of a single mutation in complexes with the close-packed form may be much greater than in complexes without dihedral symmetry. This effect may allow such complexes to evolve more readily by the efficient generation of favorable interactions, and this prediction has been supported by recent docking-simulation studies [11?3].In contrast, less attention has been paid to the minor population of ring oligomers having simple n-fold rotational symmetry (designated Cn; Figure 1A). In our statistical analysis of the PDB, we found that such ring complexes may contain even or odd numbers of subunits, and there is no bias toward even numbers (Figure 1D). Ring-shaped oligomers have a wide variety of symmetry. Prime numbers of subunits give the “lowest” symmetry, and highly composite numbers having many divisors (such as 6 and 12) give the “highest” symmetry. A question then arises whether there is a biological or physical re.

Leave a Reply