Adder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It

Adder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is the fourth most prevalent cancer in men and the 11th most prevalent cancer in women in the United States [1]. More than 90 of bladder cancers are carcinomas, which may present at different stages. Ta tumours are papillary, generally low-grade tumours, which do not invade beyond the basement membrane. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a flat tumour that does not invade the basement membrane but is always of high grade. T1 tumours invade the subepithelial connective tissue but do not infiltrate the underlying muscularis propria. T2, T3 and T4 tumours invade themuscularis propria, perivesical tissue and adjacent organs, Clavulanate (potassium) respectively [2]. There is clinical and molecular evidence for the existence of two pathways of bladder tumour progression: the Ta and CIS pathways [3?]. Ta tumours often recur after surgical resection, but they progress only rarely (5?0 of cases) and unpredictably to high-grade T1 tumours and then to muscle-invasive tumours. By contrast, CIS often progress (in about 50 of cases) to T1 and then to muscle-invasive tumours. About 80 of muscle-invasive tumours are thought to arise through the CIS pathway [5,7]. Activating mutations of FGFR3, which encodes a growth factor receptor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, have beenFGFR3 and TP53 Mutations in Bladder CancerTable 1. Summary of the materials and methods and get JWH-133 patients sections of the various published and unpublished studies.Study Mongiat-Artus UP BladderCIT UPNumber of patients 170Clinical characteristics All cases from Ta to pT4 tumors Newly diagnosed cases (pTa, pT1); all cases (pT2 to pT4) Newly diagnosed cases from pTa to pT4 tumors Newly diagnosed pT1G3 cases from a prospective study All cases from pTa and pT1 tumors Newly diagnosed cases from pTa to pT4 tumors All cases from pTa and pT1 tumors All cases from pTaG3 and pT1 to pT4 tumorsFGFR3 analysisAllele-specific PCR* (Bakkar, 2005) SNaPshot followed by sequencing** (van Oers, 2005) DHPLC followed by sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** RNA sequencing (exons 7, 10, 13, 15)*** SNaPshot followed by sequencing** (van Oers, 2005)TP53 analysisFASAY{ (Ishioka, 1993, Flaman, 1995) Sequencing (exons 4 to 11) { DHPLC followed by sequencing (exons 2 to 11) {{ Sequencing (exons 4 to 9) {{{ Sequencing (exons 5 to 8) {{{{ FASAY{ (Ishioka, 1993, Flaman, 1995) RNA sequencing (exons 4 to 9) {{{ Sequencing (exons 4 to 11) {Pathological data WHO grading WHO grading Central review WHO grading Central review 1662274 WHO grading Central review Bergkvist classification WHO grading WHO grading Central review WHO grading Central reviewBakkarHernandezZieger 2005 Lamy 2006 Lindgren 2006 Ouerhani85 121 75UP indicates a study unpublished as of March 2012. Data for individual patients are available for the unpublished data 1317923 and for Lindgren et al. paper (Table S4). All cases: both newly diagnosed cases (incident cases) and cases of recurrence or progression were studied. All FGFR3 mutation analyses were performed on DNA, except for the study by Lindgren et al. (2006), in which mutations were assessed on RNA. For TP53 mutation analysis, DNA was analysed, except for the study by Lindgren et al. (2006) and functional assays in yeast (FASAY), which were based on RNA (Ishioka et al. 1993). { FASAY results were highly concordant with those for the sequencing of TP53 (Camplejohn et al., 2000). *T.Adder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is the fourth most prevalent cancer in men and the 11th most prevalent cancer in women in the United States [1]. More than 90 of bladder cancers are carcinomas, which may present at different stages. Ta tumours are papillary, generally low-grade tumours, which do not invade beyond the basement membrane. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a flat tumour that does not invade the basement membrane but is always of high grade. T1 tumours invade the subepithelial connective tissue but do not infiltrate the underlying muscularis propria. T2, T3 and T4 tumours invade themuscularis propria, perivesical tissue and adjacent organs, respectively [2]. There is clinical and molecular evidence for the existence of two pathways of bladder tumour progression: the Ta and CIS pathways [3?]. Ta tumours often recur after surgical resection, but they progress only rarely (5?0 of cases) and unpredictably to high-grade T1 tumours and then to muscle-invasive tumours. By contrast, CIS often progress (in about 50 of cases) to T1 and then to muscle-invasive tumours. About 80 of muscle-invasive tumours are thought to arise through the CIS pathway [5,7]. Activating mutations of FGFR3, which encodes a growth factor receptor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, have beenFGFR3 and TP53 Mutations in Bladder CancerTable 1. Summary of the materials and methods and patients sections of the various published and unpublished studies.Study Mongiat-Artus UP BladderCIT UPNumber of patients 170Clinical characteristics All cases from Ta to pT4 tumors Newly diagnosed cases (pTa, pT1); all cases (pT2 to pT4) Newly diagnosed cases from pTa to pT4 tumors Newly diagnosed pT1G3 cases from a prospective study All cases from pTa and pT1 tumors Newly diagnosed cases from pTa to pT4 tumors All cases from pTa and pT1 tumors All cases from pTaG3 and pT1 to pT4 tumorsFGFR3 analysisAllele-specific PCR* (Bakkar, 2005) SNaPshot followed by sequencing** (van Oers, 2005) DHPLC followed by sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** Sequencing (exons 7, 10, 15)*** RNA sequencing (exons 7, 10, 13, 15)*** SNaPshot followed by sequencing** (van Oers, 2005)TP53 analysisFASAY{ (Ishioka, 1993, Flaman, 1995) Sequencing (exons 4 to 11) { DHPLC followed by sequencing (exons 2 to 11) {{ Sequencing (exons 4 to 9) {{{ Sequencing (exons 5 to 8) {{{{ FASAY{ (Ishioka, 1993, Flaman, 1995) RNA sequencing (exons 4 to 9) {{{ Sequencing (exons 4 to 11) {Pathological data WHO grading WHO grading Central review WHO grading Central review 1662274 WHO grading Central review Bergkvist classification WHO grading WHO grading Central review WHO grading Central reviewBakkarHernandezZieger 2005 Lamy 2006 Lindgren 2006 Ouerhani85 121 75UP indicates a study unpublished as of March 2012. Data for individual patients are available for the unpublished data 1317923 and for Lindgren et al. paper (Table S4). All cases: both newly diagnosed cases (incident cases) and cases of recurrence or progression were studied. All FGFR3 mutation analyses were performed on DNA, except for the study by Lindgren et al. (2006), in which mutations were assessed on RNA. For TP53 mutation analysis, DNA was analysed, except for the study by Lindgren et al. (2006) and functional assays in yeast (FASAY), which were based on RNA (Ishioka et al. 1993). { FASAY results were highly concordant with those for the sequencing of TP53 (Camplejohn et al., 2000). *T.

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