Es were calculated using Prism software (Graphpad) using a two-tailed, unpaired

Es were calculated using Prism software (Graphpad) using a SPDB chemical information two-tailed, unpaired Student’s t-test. Asterisks represent statistically significant analyses comparing B6 to RasGRP mutant mice, unless indicated otherwise. Statistical significance is represented as */#p,0.05, **p,0.01 and ***p,0.001.ResultsGiven that the Ras/ERK pathway is activated during bselection and Sos1 deficiency only partially impaired the DN3 to DN4 transition, it is probable that other RasGEFs are involved in b-selection. Recent reports published by Zhu et al. and Kortum et al. showed that RasGRP1- and RasGRP1/4- deficient mice showed impaired development beyond DN3, suggesting impaired b-selection [24,25]. However, the involvement of RasGRP family members in the hallmark events of b-selection was not explored in detail. To examine potential roles for RasGRP1 and/or RasGRP3 in T cell development, we first examined CD4/CD8 profiles of Thy1.2+ thymocytes from wildtype (B6), RasGRP12/2 (1KO),RasGRP32/2 (3KO) and RasGRP12/2; 32/2 (DKO) mice. As has been previously reported, 1KO mice showed significantly reduced frequencies and numbers of CD4SP and CD8SP thymocytes (Fig. 1A,B) due to defects in positive selection [22,29]. Likewise, DKO mice also showed significant MedChemExpress Lixisenatide reductions in CD4SP and CD8SP frequencies and numbers. However, double deficiency of RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 did not appear to further abrogate positive selection compared to RasGRP1 deficiency alone. 3KO mice did not show significant alterations in numbers or frequencies of any major thymic subsets. In addition to defects in positive selection, 1KO thymi have recently been reported to show impaired iNKT cell development [23]. To assess a potential additional role for RasGRP3 in thymic iNKT cell development we examined B6 and RasGRP1/3 deficient thymi for the presence of mature CD1d(PBS57) tetramer binding CD3+ iNKT cells. As expected, 1KO and DKO thymi showed statistically significant reductions in iNKT cell frequencies and numbers compared to B6 (Fig. 1C,D). 3KO thymi showed similar numbers and frequencies of iNKT cells as B6 and iNKT cell selection did not appear further abrogated by RasGRP1/3 double deficiency compared to RasGRP1 loss alone. To gain a better understanding of the influence of RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1/3 deficiency on b-selection, we examined total thymic cellularity since the proliferative burst that accompanies b-selection is largely responsible for the total number of thymocytes present. As a result of inefficient b-selection, DKO thymi showed a significant reduction in total thymic cellularity compared to B6. 1KO and 3KO thymi showed a reduction in total thymocyte numbers compared to B6, however, this was not statistically significant (Fig. 2A). An important outcome of bselection is the development of DP thymocytes from DN progenitors. Likewise, defects in b-selection disrupt the normal balance of DN to DP in the thymus. Interestingly, 1KO and DKO mice showed significantly elevated frequencies and increased, although not statistically significant, numbers of DN thymocytes compared to B6 (Fig. 2B). In addition to having an increased pool of DN, 1KO and DKO thymi also show decreased numbers of DP compared to B6 (Fig. 2C). Since the DP compartment is generated from DN progenitors, analyzing the ratio of DP to DN (DP/DN) provides insight into the efficiency with which DN thymocytes develop into DP. Strikingly, 1KO and DKO mice showed significant reductions in DP/DN, suggesting inefficient deve.Es were calculated using Prism software (Graphpad) using a two-tailed, unpaired Student’s t-test. Asterisks represent statistically significant analyses comparing B6 to RasGRP mutant mice, unless indicated otherwise. Statistical significance is represented as */#p,0.05, **p,0.01 and ***p,0.001.ResultsGiven that the Ras/ERK pathway is activated during bselection and Sos1 deficiency only partially impaired the DN3 to DN4 transition, it is probable that other RasGEFs are involved in b-selection. Recent reports published by Zhu et al. and Kortum et al. showed that RasGRP1- and RasGRP1/4- deficient mice showed impaired development beyond DN3, suggesting impaired b-selection [24,25]. However, the involvement of RasGRP family members in the hallmark events of b-selection was not explored in detail. To examine potential roles for RasGRP1 and/or RasGRP3 in T cell development, we first examined CD4/CD8 profiles of Thy1.2+ thymocytes from wildtype (B6), RasGRP12/2 (1KO),RasGRP32/2 (3KO) and RasGRP12/2; 32/2 (DKO) mice. As has been previously reported, 1KO mice showed significantly reduced frequencies and numbers of CD4SP and CD8SP thymocytes (Fig. 1A,B) due to defects in positive selection [22,29]. Likewise, DKO mice also showed significant reductions in CD4SP and CD8SP frequencies and numbers. However, double deficiency of RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 did not appear to further abrogate positive selection compared to RasGRP1 deficiency alone. 3KO mice did not show significant alterations in numbers or frequencies of any major thymic subsets. In addition to defects in positive selection, 1KO thymi have recently been reported to show impaired iNKT cell development [23]. To assess a potential additional role for RasGRP3 in thymic iNKT cell development we examined B6 and RasGRP1/3 deficient thymi for the presence of mature CD1d(PBS57) tetramer binding CD3+ iNKT cells. As expected, 1KO and DKO thymi showed statistically significant reductions in iNKT cell frequencies and numbers compared to B6 (Fig. 1C,D). 3KO thymi showed similar numbers and frequencies of iNKT cells as B6 and iNKT cell selection did not appear further abrogated by RasGRP1/3 double deficiency compared to RasGRP1 loss alone. To gain a better understanding of the influence of RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1/3 deficiency on b-selection, we examined total thymic cellularity since the proliferative burst that accompanies b-selection is largely responsible for the total number of thymocytes present. As a result of inefficient b-selection, DKO thymi showed a significant reduction in total thymic cellularity compared to B6. 1KO and 3KO thymi showed a reduction in total thymocyte numbers compared to B6, however, this was not statistically significant (Fig. 2A). An important outcome of bselection is the development of DP thymocytes from DN progenitors. Likewise, defects in b-selection disrupt the normal balance of DN to DP in the thymus. Interestingly, 1KO and DKO mice showed significantly elevated frequencies and increased, although not statistically significant, numbers of DN thymocytes compared to B6 (Fig. 2B). In addition to having an increased pool of DN, 1KO and DKO thymi also show decreased numbers of DP compared to B6 (Fig. 2C). Since the DP compartment is generated from DN progenitors, analyzing the ratio of DP to DN (DP/DN) provides insight into the efficiency with which DN thymocytes develop into DP. Strikingly, 1KO and DKO mice showed significant reductions in DP/DN, suggesting inefficient deve.

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