Ls with less radioactivity. The high linear energy transfer of a

Ls with less radioactivity. The high linear energy transfer of a particles induces significantly more DNA double strand breaks than b2 particles [7]. Also, the biological effectiveness of a particles does not depend upon hypoxia or cell cycle considerations [8?]. Most a emitters also have a relatively low c-ray component in their decay allowing for outpatient treatments and lower radiation doses to nuclear medicine personnel [10]. A number of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) agents based on the single alpha emitting radionuclides 211At (t1/2 = 7.2 h), 213Bi (t1/ 212 Pb (t1/2 = 10.6 h), and 212Bi (t1/2 = 61 m) have been 2 = 46 m), developed and are showing promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials [11]. The radiotherapeutic efficacy of TAT could, however, be further enhanced by use of in vivo a-generator radionuclides like 225 Ac, which emits four a particles in its decay chain (Figure 1). The median lethal dose of 225Ac constructs is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the LD50 values for the corresponding single a emitting 213Bi labeled antibodies in vitro with a number of cancer cell types [12]. Moreover, the longer half-life of 225Ac (t1/2 = 10 d) MedChemExpress Calciferol reduces activity loss during radiopharmaceutical synthesis and allows greater time for localization of antibodies to receptor sites. Despite these advantages, there is a distinct challenge associated with targeted in vivo a-generator radiotherapy. If the a-emitting daughter products in the 225Ac decay chain are not sequestered at the target site, they can migrate and deliver a potentially toxic doseGold Coated LnPO4 Nanoparticles for a RadiotherapyFigure 1. Abbreviated decay scheme of 225Ac.225Ac emits 4 a particles in the process of decaying to the long-lived 209Bi. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054531.gFigure 2. Schematic of gold coated lanthanide phosphate NP. The a emitter is loaded in the La0.5Gd0.5PO4 core, the GdPO4 layer(s) increase retention of the decay chain daughters, and the Au shell facilitates attachment of targeting agents. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054531.gto non-target tissue [11]. The recoil energy of the 225Ac daughters following alpha decay (.100 keV) will sever any metal-ligand bond used to form the bioconjugate, releasing the daughter radionuclides from the targeting agent. Renal toxicity is currently the dose-limiting factor in clinical use of 225Ac. In the recent work of Schwartz et al., almost 80 of the absorbed dose to the renal medulla was delivered by free 213Bi when using a metal-ligand bioconjugate to deliver 225Ac in a mouse model [13]. Metal-ligand bioconjugates fail to sequester the daughter products of 225Ac (221Fr, 217At, and 213Bi) and the released 213Bi accumulates in the kidney [14?5]. An alternative strategy 23977191 to this challenge, incorporating 225Ac in engineered liposomes, was found to retain less than 10 of the 213Bi activity from the decay of 225Ac in vitro [16]. The in vivo a generator 223Ra, which also emits four alpha particles in its decay chain, is an effective treatment for metastatic bone cancer [17]. Radium-223 chloride has been granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Pleuromutilin site Administration for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer in patients with bone metastases [18]. It is effective in this case because radium is 26001275 a calcium mimic with a high affinity for bone tissue and the daughter products either have short half-lives or have a high affinity for bone (211Pb, t1/2 = 36 m). Translation of in vivo a generators to an.Ls with less radioactivity. The high linear energy transfer of a particles induces significantly more DNA double strand breaks than b2 particles [7]. Also, the biological effectiveness of a particles does not depend upon hypoxia or cell cycle considerations [8?]. Most a emitters also have a relatively low c-ray component in their decay allowing for outpatient treatments and lower radiation doses to nuclear medicine personnel [10]. A number of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) agents based on the single alpha emitting radionuclides 211At (t1/2 = 7.2 h), 213Bi (t1/ 212 Pb (t1/2 = 10.6 h), and 212Bi (t1/2 = 61 m) have been 2 = 46 m), developed and are showing promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials [11]. The radiotherapeutic efficacy of TAT could, however, be further enhanced by use of in vivo a-generator radionuclides like 225 Ac, which emits four a particles in its decay chain (Figure 1). The median lethal dose of 225Ac constructs is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the LD50 values for the corresponding single a emitting 213Bi labeled antibodies in vitro with a number of cancer cell types [12]. Moreover, the longer half-life of 225Ac (t1/2 = 10 d) reduces activity loss during radiopharmaceutical synthesis and allows greater time for localization of antibodies to receptor sites. Despite these advantages, there is a distinct challenge associated with targeted in vivo a-generator radiotherapy. If the a-emitting daughter products in the 225Ac decay chain are not sequestered at the target site, they can migrate and deliver a potentially toxic doseGold Coated LnPO4 Nanoparticles for a RadiotherapyFigure 1. Abbreviated decay scheme of 225Ac.225Ac emits 4 a particles in the process of decaying to the long-lived 209Bi. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054531.gFigure 2. Schematic of gold coated lanthanide phosphate NP. The a emitter is loaded in the La0.5Gd0.5PO4 core, the GdPO4 layer(s) increase retention of the decay chain daughters, and the Au shell facilitates attachment of targeting agents. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054531.gto non-target tissue [11]. The recoil energy of the 225Ac daughters following alpha decay (.100 keV) will sever any metal-ligand bond used to form the bioconjugate, releasing the daughter radionuclides from the targeting agent. Renal toxicity is currently the dose-limiting factor in clinical use of 225Ac. In the recent work of Schwartz et al., almost 80 of the absorbed dose to the renal medulla was delivered by free 213Bi when using a metal-ligand bioconjugate to deliver 225Ac in a mouse model [13]. Metal-ligand bioconjugates fail to sequester the daughter products of 225Ac (221Fr, 217At, and 213Bi) and the released 213Bi accumulates in the kidney [14?5]. An alternative strategy 23977191 to this challenge, incorporating 225Ac in engineered liposomes, was found to retain less than 10 of the 213Bi activity from the decay of 225Ac in vitro [16]. The in vivo a generator 223Ra, which also emits four alpha particles in its decay chain, is an effective treatment for metastatic bone cancer [17]. Radium-223 chloride has been granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer in patients with bone metastases [18]. It is effective in this case because radium is 26001275 a calcium mimic with a high affinity for bone tissue and the daughter products either have short half-lives or have a high affinity for bone (211Pb, t1/2 = 36 m). Translation of in vivo a generators to an.

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