E activated and release cytokines promoting a Th2 type immune response

E activated and release cytokines promoting a Th2 type immune response in the lungs. To investigate this effect, we examined whether ACA treatment could alter the expression of Th1/2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-12a, and IL-13 in lung tissues. We focused on the expression of Th1/2 cytokines because immunohistochemistry results showed that T cells were reduced after ACA treatment. In the present study, expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 were decreased NT-157 site dose-dependently in the ACAtreated mice compared with the [DTrp6]-LH-RH untreated OVA-challenged group (Figure 4a, 4b, and 4d). In addition, the Th1 cytokine IL-12a was decreased in ACA-treated mice compared with the untreated OVA-challenged group (Figure 4c). Thus, ACA treatment influences the cytokine milieu in the allergic asthmatic state.ACA reduced expression of Th2 and Th1 cytokinesAsthma is characterized by increased secretion 23727046 of proinflammatory cytokines by Th2 and Th1 cells [9]. We further investigated the localization and number of infiltrated inflammatory cells responsible for cytokine expression. Cytokines localized primarily near inflamed bronchial and pulmonary arterioles. Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, which were overexpressed in the OVAinduced asthma model, were suppressed by both doses of ACA (Figure 5a and 5b). However, ACA did not significantly inhibit OVA-induced overexpression of IL-5 (Figure 5c.) In addition, ACA suppressed the secretion of Th1 cytokines IL-12a and IFN-c (Figure 5d and 5e).DiscussionIn our study, we found that ACA dose-dependently suppressed WBC infiltration of the lungs in mice with OVA-induced asthma, and 50 mg/kg/day ACA treatment reduced the WBC count to that of the vehicle control group. Specifically, eosinophil infiltration, which is characteristic of asthma, was significantly suppressed by ACA. In addition, ACA blocked OVA-induced histopathological changes such as airway remodeling, goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and mucus plugs. Although treatment with ACA did not inhibit B cell activation, as assessed by CD79a expression, our results show that ACA is effective atreducing populations of CD4+ Th cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Finally, ACA downregulated Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and Th1 cytokines IL-12a and IFN-c, but did not affect the secretion of IL-5. The relationship between Th1 cells and Th2 cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mamessier and Magnan [9] hypothesized that there are three situations related to asthma. In a healthy subject, activation of Th1 and Th2 cells is balanced, and the level of regulatory T-cell activation is relatively low. In well-controlled asthma, the level of Th1 cell activation is similar to that of regulatory T cells, but Th2 cell activation is suppressed. In uncontrolled asthma, the level of Th2 cell activation is lower than that of Th1 cells, which in turn is lower than that of regulatory T cells. Thus, not only is the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells important, equilibrium is needed between Th1/ Th2 cells and regulatory T cells. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote acute inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of asthma and structural changes in the airways; [10,11,27]. We found that ACA dose-dependently reduced IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the lungs (Figure 5d). In addition, ACA decreased IL-12 a and INF-c levels as effectively as dexamethasone (Figure 5e). Asthma was traditionally though to be initiated by an imbalan.E activated and release cytokines promoting a Th2 type immune response in the lungs. To investigate this effect, we examined whether ACA treatment could alter the expression of Th1/2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-12a, and IL-13 in lung tissues. We focused on the expression of Th1/2 cytokines because immunohistochemistry results showed that T cells were reduced after ACA treatment. In the present study, expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 were decreased dose-dependently in the ACAtreated mice compared with the untreated OVA-challenged group (Figure 4a, 4b, and 4d). In addition, the Th1 cytokine IL-12a was decreased in ACA-treated mice compared with the untreated OVA-challenged group (Figure 4c). Thus, ACA treatment influences the cytokine milieu in the allergic asthmatic state.ACA reduced expression of Th2 and Th1 cytokinesAsthma is characterized by increased secretion 23727046 of proinflammatory cytokines by Th2 and Th1 cells [9]. We further investigated the localization and number of infiltrated inflammatory cells responsible for cytokine expression. Cytokines localized primarily near inflamed bronchial and pulmonary arterioles. Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, which were overexpressed in the OVAinduced asthma model, were suppressed by both doses of ACA (Figure 5a and 5b). However, ACA did not significantly inhibit OVA-induced overexpression of IL-5 (Figure 5c.) In addition, ACA suppressed the secretion of Th1 cytokines IL-12a and IFN-c (Figure 5d and 5e).DiscussionIn our study, we found that ACA dose-dependently suppressed WBC infiltration of the lungs in mice with OVA-induced asthma, and 50 mg/kg/day ACA treatment reduced the WBC count to that of the vehicle control group. Specifically, eosinophil infiltration, which is characteristic of asthma, was significantly suppressed by ACA. In addition, ACA blocked OVA-induced histopathological changes such as airway remodeling, goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and mucus plugs. Although treatment with ACA did not inhibit B cell activation, as assessed by CD79a expression, our results show that ACA is effective atreducing populations of CD4+ Th cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Finally, ACA downregulated Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and Th1 cytokines IL-12a and IFN-c, but did not affect the secretion of IL-5. The relationship between Th1 cells and Th2 cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mamessier and Magnan [9] hypothesized that there are three situations related to asthma. In a healthy subject, activation of Th1 and Th2 cells is balanced, and the level of regulatory T-cell activation is relatively low. In well-controlled asthma, the level of Th1 cell activation is similar to that of regulatory T cells, but Th2 cell activation is suppressed. In uncontrolled asthma, the level of Th2 cell activation is lower than that of Th1 cells, which in turn is lower than that of regulatory T cells. Thus, not only is the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells important, equilibrium is needed between Th1/ Th2 cells and regulatory T cells. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote acute inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of asthma and structural changes in the airways; [10,11,27]. We found that ACA dose-dependently reduced IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the lungs (Figure 5d). In addition, ACA decreased IL-12 a and INF-c levels as effectively as dexamethasone (Figure 5e). Asthma was traditionally though to be initiated by an imbalan.

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