Env construct pTHr.gp150CT [31] was a gift from Carolyn Williamson

Env construct pTHr.gp150CT [31] was a gift from Carolyn Williamson (University of Cape Town). The codon-optimized, carboxyterminally truncated Du151 env, Du151 gp150, was subcloned into the pcDNA3.1(+) expression vector (Invitrogen). The HIV-1 tat (GenBank Accession number X07861) cloned into pcDNA3.1, HIV-1 rev (GenBank Accession No. M34378) cloned into pcDNA3.1/Hygro (Invitrogen) and the pHIV-1LTR-Luc reporter construct [32] were gifts from Steven Jenkinson, GlaxoSmithKline. The following cell lines were obtained from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program, Division of AIDS, NIAID, NIH: Human osteosarcoma cells stably expressing CD4 (HOS-CD4.pBABE-puro) or CD4 and CCR5 (HOS-CD4-CCR5) from Dr Nathaniel Landau [33]. The pHIV-1LTR-Luc constructIP ProductionBasal and MIP-1b-stimulation of IP second messenger production was assessed as previously described [22,35]. Briefly, HEK-Gqi cells (36106 per 10 cm dish), transfected with wild typeConstitutively Active CCR5 Receptor Conformationsor mutant CCR5 receptor constructs, were distributed into 12-well plates (Corning, 2 plates/10 cm dish), incubated overnight and then incubated with 3[H]myo-inositol (1 mCi/ml, Amersham Life Sciences, Buckinghamshire, England, 16?8 h). The resulting radio-labeled cells were pre-incubated with buffer I (40 mM NaCl, 4 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, 8.3 mM Eliglustat site glucose, 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM LiCl, 0.1 BSA, 0.4 80-49-9 site phenol red, 15 min, 37uC) and then incubated in duplicate 18325633 with buffer I containing various concentrations of MIP-1b (0?027 M, 60 min, 37uC), after which the medium was replaced with pre-cooled formic acid (1 ml, 10 mM, 30 min, 4uC). The resulting cell lysates were applied to ion exchange columns (DOWEX-1, Sigma, Bellefonte, USA) and [3H]IP was eluted (1 M ammonium formate, 0.1 M formic acid) into vials containing scintillation fluid (16 ml, Quicksafe; Zinsser Analytical, Frankfurt, Germany) and counted. MIP-1b concentrations that stimulated half-maximal IP production (EC50 values) were calculated using GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA). Data are presented as means 6 SEM and statistical significance was assessed using unpaired Ttests (GraphPad Prism).control to set the gating threshold and the mean fluorescence of gated cells transfected with the wild type construct was defined as 100 for each experiment.Env-Directed Cell Fusion AssayA cell fusion assay that models the interaction of the host cell receptors with the Env protein expressed on the membrane of the HIV-1 virion [32] was used to assess the ability of mutant receptors to mediate Env-dependent membrane fusion. In this assay, HEK 293 cells expressing HIV Env protein and the HIV transcription factor, Tat, were mixed with HOS-CD4-Luc reporter cells expressing CCR5 receptors. Binding of Env on the HEK 293 cells to CD4 and CCR5 on the transfected HOS-CD4Luc cells allows fusion of the cells and Tat expressed in HEK 293 cells is able to activate Luc expression via the LTR promoter in the HOS-CD4-Luc cells. HOS-CD4-Luc cells were transiently transfected with wild type or mutant CCR5 receptor cDNA cloned into the hygromycin resistant vector, pcDNA3.1/Hygro(+) (Invitrogen), cultured overnight and then cultured (48 h) in DMEM supplemented with FCS (10 ), G418 (400 mg/ml) and hygromycin (200 mg/ml, Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to select for transfected cells. Expression of CCR5 was assessed by FACS analysis and HOS-CD4-Luc cells expressing wild type or mutant CCR5 constructs we.Env construct pTHr.gp150CT [31] was a gift from Carolyn Williamson (University of Cape Town). The codon-optimized, carboxyterminally truncated Du151 env, Du151 gp150, was subcloned into the pcDNA3.1(+) expression vector (Invitrogen). The HIV-1 tat (GenBank Accession number X07861) cloned into pcDNA3.1, HIV-1 rev (GenBank Accession No. M34378) cloned into pcDNA3.1/Hygro (Invitrogen) and the pHIV-1LTR-Luc reporter construct [32] were gifts from Steven Jenkinson, GlaxoSmithKline. The following cell lines were obtained from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program, Division of AIDS, NIAID, NIH: Human osteosarcoma cells stably expressing CD4 (HOS-CD4.pBABE-puro) or CD4 and CCR5 (HOS-CD4-CCR5) from Dr Nathaniel Landau [33]. The pHIV-1LTR-Luc constructIP ProductionBasal and MIP-1b-stimulation of IP second messenger production was assessed as previously described [22,35]. Briefly, HEK-Gqi cells (36106 per 10 cm dish), transfected with wild typeConstitutively Active CCR5 Receptor Conformationsor mutant CCR5 receptor constructs, were distributed into 12-well plates (Corning, 2 plates/10 cm dish), incubated overnight and then incubated with 3[H]myo-inositol (1 mCi/ml, Amersham Life Sciences, Buckinghamshire, England, 16?8 h). The resulting radio-labeled cells were pre-incubated with buffer I (40 mM NaCl, 4 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, 8.3 mM glucose, 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM LiCl, 0.1 BSA, 0.4 phenol red, 15 min, 37uC) and then incubated in duplicate 18325633 with buffer I containing various concentrations of MIP-1b (0?027 M, 60 min, 37uC), after which the medium was replaced with pre-cooled formic acid (1 ml, 10 mM, 30 min, 4uC). The resulting cell lysates were applied to ion exchange columns (DOWEX-1, Sigma, Bellefonte, USA) and [3H]IP was eluted (1 M ammonium formate, 0.1 M formic acid) into vials containing scintillation fluid (16 ml, Quicksafe; Zinsser Analytical, Frankfurt, Germany) and counted. MIP-1b concentrations that stimulated half-maximal IP production (EC50 values) were calculated using GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA). Data are presented as means 6 SEM and statistical significance was assessed using unpaired Ttests (GraphPad Prism).control to set the gating threshold and the mean fluorescence of gated cells transfected with the wild type construct was defined as 100 for each experiment.Env-Directed Cell Fusion AssayA cell fusion assay that models the interaction of the host cell receptors with the Env protein expressed on the membrane of the HIV-1 virion [32] was used to assess the ability of mutant receptors to mediate Env-dependent membrane fusion. In this assay, HEK 293 cells expressing HIV Env protein and the HIV transcription factor, Tat, were mixed with HOS-CD4-Luc reporter cells expressing CCR5 receptors. Binding of Env on the HEK 293 cells to CD4 and CCR5 on the transfected HOS-CD4Luc cells allows fusion of the cells and Tat expressed in HEK 293 cells is able to activate Luc expression via the LTR promoter in the HOS-CD4-Luc cells. HOS-CD4-Luc cells were transiently transfected with wild type or mutant CCR5 receptor cDNA cloned into the hygromycin resistant vector, pcDNA3.1/Hygro(+) (Invitrogen), cultured overnight and then cultured (48 h) in DMEM supplemented with FCS (10 ), G418 (400 mg/ml) and hygromycin (200 mg/ml, Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to select for transfected cells. Expression of CCR5 was assessed by FACS analysis and HOS-CD4-Luc cells expressing wild type or mutant CCR5 constructs we.

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