Nd GAPDH were 555 bp and 477 bp, respectively. M, 250-bp DNA ladder

Nd GAPDH were 555 bp and 477 bp, respectively. M, 250-bp DNA ladder; hLF, transgenic cattle of #040825; WT, wide-type cattle. Bovine GAPDH gene was used as internal control. (TIF)ConclusionTo date, PCR-based techniques have been widely used for PD1-PDL1 inhibitor 1 web precise transgene flanking sequence identification in biological research, but these techniques are limited in their ability to identify the specific amplification of a transgene that is present in multiple copies or as an MedChemExpress 223488-57-1 incomplete sequence. The present study has demonstrated the successful use of a high-throughput nextgeneration sequencing platform to characterize transgene integration. This approach identified both complete and incomplete hLF BAC integration sites with high specificity at single nucleotide resolution and also provided information on the chromosomal location and transgene copy number. Each application of this next-generation sequencing approach was verified by commonly used techniques for transgene characterization-PCR for the integration sites and FISH for the chromosomal location nd shown to be accurate and consistent. In addition, high-throughput sequencing enabled the determination of the copy number of both the integrated transgene and the backbone of the vector by counting the relative sequencing depths of the corresponding DNA regions. Furthermore, when combined with PCR at specific locations, this approach clarified whether the transgene had integrated into the genome as a complete copy or as an incomplete fragment. The future application of high-throughput sequencing to the characterization of transgenic animals and plants will be of profound significance and is likely to complement, if not replace, traditional PCR-based methods.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: NL RZ. Performed the experiments: RZ KL HZ QG 18325633 YY. Analyzed the data: YZ YY RZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RZ YY JW XH NL. Wrote the paper: RZ YY.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Verification of the integration sites of thetransgene by PCR. PCR detection of the (A) 59 flanking region
Gestagens acting via the progestin receptor (PR) serve as important mediators in the regulation of the ovarian cycle, and are responsible for maintaining pregnancy in mammals [1]. In most mammals studied so far the predominant gestagen is progesterone (P4), both in terms of blood levels and binding capacity of the PR [2]. By lacking progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations, elephants are a unique exception. Progesterone blood levels of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants are 100 to 1000-fold lower compared to other mammals and are therefore not able to serve as functional gestagen [3]. Furthermore, the concentration of progesterone neither changes during the ovarian cycle nor 1527786 increases during pregnancy, indicating the lack of an endocrine role of progesterone in elephants [4,5]. Searching for the relevant gestagen in elephants revealed high concentrations of the 5-alpha-reduced progestins 5a-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and allopregnanolone, both being synthesized in the corpus luteum of the elephant ovary [5] (Figure 1). Serum levels of DHP show a close correlation with the ovarian cyclicity and remain constantly high from onset of pregnancy until parturition. While the binding capacity in mammals for DHP and allopregnanolone is generally low compared to progesterone, elephants can bind DHP with a similar affinity to progesterone indicating a ch.Nd GAPDH were 555 bp and 477 bp, respectively. M, 250-bp DNA ladder; hLF, transgenic cattle of #040825; WT, wide-type cattle. Bovine GAPDH gene was used as internal control. (TIF)ConclusionTo date, PCR-based techniques have been widely used for precise transgene flanking sequence identification in biological research, but these techniques are limited in their ability to identify the specific amplification of a transgene that is present in multiple copies or as an incomplete sequence. The present study has demonstrated the successful use of a high-throughput nextgeneration sequencing platform to characterize transgene integration. This approach identified both complete and incomplete hLF BAC integration sites with high specificity at single nucleotide resolution and also provided information on the chromosomal location and transgene copy number. Each application of this next-generation sequencing approach was verified by commonly used techniques for transgene characterization-PCR for the integration sites and FISH for the chromosomal location nd shown to be accurate and consistent. In addition, high-throughput sequencing enabled the determination of the copy number of both the integrated transgene and the backbone of the vector by counting the relative sequencing depths of the corresponding DNA regions. Furthermore, when combined with PCR at specific locations, this approach clarified whether the transgene had integrated into the genome as a complete copy or as an incomplete fragment. The future application of high-throughput sequencing to the characterization of transgenic animals and plants will be of profound significance and is likely to complement, if not replace, traditional PCR-based methods.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: NL RZ. Performed the experiments: RZ KL HZ QG 18325633 YY. Analyzed the data: YZ YY RZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RZ YY JW XH NL. Wrote the paper: RZ YY.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Verification of the integration sites of thetransgene by PCR. PCR detection of the (A) 59 flanking region
Gestagens acting via the progestin receptor (PR) serve as important mediators in the regulation of the ovarian cycle, and are responsible for maintaining pregnancy in mammals [1]. In most mammals studied so far the predominant gestagen is progesterone (P4), both in terms of blood levels and binding capacity of the PR [2]. By lacking progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations, elephants are a unique exception. Progesterone blood levels of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants are 100 to 1000-fold lower compared to other mammals and are therefore not able to serve as functional gestagen [3]. Furthermore, the concentration of progesterone neither changes during the ovarian cycle nor 1527786 increases during pregnancy, indicating the lack of an endocrine role of progesterone in elephants [4,5]. Searching for the relevant gestagen in elephants revealed high concentrations of the 5-alpha-reduced progestins 5a-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and allopregnanolone, both being synthesized in the corpus luteum of the elephant ovary [5] (Figure 1). Serum levels of DHP show a close correlation with the ovarian cyclicity and remain constantly high from onset of pregnancy until parturition. While the binding capacity in mammals for DHP and allopregnanolone is generally low compared to progesterone, elephants can bind DHP with a similar affinity to progesterone indicating a ch.

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