Body weight in male and female mice were due to lack

Body weight in male and female mice were due to lack of serum MIC-1/ GDF15 in the knockout animals, since administration of physiologically relevant amounts of human MIC-1/GDF15 decreased food intake and body weight in both MIC-12/2 and syngeneic MIC-1+/+ mice. Despite having a similar phenotype with respect to increased body weight and adiposity, the 3PO effects of MIC-1/GDF15 gene deletion was greater in female than in male mice and the underlying physical/metabolic changes differed between the sexes in some aspects. This suggests that MIC-1/GDF15 exert its effect differentially between male and female animals. This is consistent with epidemiological data from human cohorts, where there are sex-related differences in the relationship between MIC-1/GDF15 and anthropometric measurements (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) [25,26]. In mice, female but not male MIC-12/2 mice displayed a significant reduction in lean mass, a significant increase in spontaneous food intake as well as significantly reduced energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate and physical activity compared to control mice. Although white adipose AN-3199 site tissue consumes/stores energy and helps to regulate metabolic rate, lean mass consumes much more energy than the fat mass [27,28]. Therefore, the relatively 15900046 reduced lean mass seen only in the female MIC-12/2 female mice may have contributed to the associated reduction in energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate in these animals, and may help to explain the greater difference in body weight of the female MIC-12/2 versus control mice. Whilst male mice MIC-12/2 weight more, and are more obese than their syngeic controls, this difference is less than in females and its aetiology is less clear. The increase in spontaneous food intake in male MIC-12/2 mice was not statistically significant, either because no real difference existed or because the study was underpowered to detect a small difference. However, it is noteworthy that in humans, sustained small changes in daily energy intake, as low as 10 kcal, are capable of altering body weight and composition [29,30]. Additionally, it is not uncommon for C57BL5 mice to display changes in body weight and body composition with little or no changes in energy intake [31]. Like MIC-1/GDF15, various other members of the TGF-b superfamily are also involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and energy metabolism by signaling through the smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathways, or alternatively signaling through other members of MAPK family such as ERK and JNK [32]. Whilst the effects are controversial, in general, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) direct commitment of preadipocytes to either the white (BMP2 and BMP4) or the brown adipocyte (BMP7) lineage. [BMP7 also increases mitochondrial biogenesis leading to increased energy expenditure [27,33?6]. By contrast, TGF-b1 and activin inhibit the differenMIC-1/GDF15 Regulates Appetite and Body Weighttiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes and hamper lipid accumulation [37?9]. Additionally, in mouse knockout models, growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF3) deficient mice displayed increased basal metabolic rate, and myostatin deficient mice displayed decreased skeletal muscle mass with increased adiposity [40?2], which contrasted to what female MIC-12/2 exhibited, suggesting a novel role of MIC-1/GDF15 in the 26001275 regulation of metabolic rate and possibly also myogenesis. Both male and female MIC-12/2 mice have increased white.Body weight in male and female mice were due to lack of serum MIC-1/ GDF15 in the knockout animals, since administration of physiologically relevant amounts of human MIC-1/GDF15 decreased food intake and body weight in both MIC-12/2 and syngeneic MIC-1+/+ mice. Despite having a similar phenotype with respect to increased body weight and adiposity, the effects of MIC-1/GDF15 gene deletion was greater in female than in male mice and the underlying physical/metabolic changes differed between the sexes in some aspects. This suggests that MIC-1/GDF15 exert its effect differentially between male and female animals. This is consistent with epidemiological data from human cohorts, where there are sex-related differences in the relationship between MIC-1/GDF15 and anthropometric measurements (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) [25,26]. In mice, female but not male MIC-12/2 mice displayed a significant reduction in lean mass, a significant increase in spontaneous food intake as well as significantly reduced energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate and physical activity compared to control mice. Although white adipose tissue consumes/stores energy and helps to regulate metabolic rate, lean mass consumes much more energy than the fat mass [27,28]. Therefore, the relatively 15900046 reduced lean mass seen only in the female MIC-12/2 female mice may have contributed to the associated reduction in energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate in these animals, and may help to explain the greater difference in body weight of the female MIC-12/2 versus control mice. Whilst male mice MIC-12/2 weight more, and are more obese than their syngeic controls, this difference is less than in females and its aetiology is less clear. The increase in spontaneous food intake in male MIC-12/2 mice was not statistically significant, either because no real difference existed or because the study was underpowered to detect a small difference. However, it is noteworthy that in humans, sustained small changes in daily energy intake, as low as 10 kcal, are capable of altering body weight and composition [29,30]. Additionally, it is not uncommon for C57BL5 mice to display changes in body weight and body composition with little or no changes in energy intake [31]. Like MIC-1/GDF15, various other members of the TGF-b superfamily are also involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and energy metabolism by signaling through the smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathways, or alternatively signaling through other members of MAPK family such as ERK and JNK [32]. Whilst the effects are controversial, in general, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) direct commitment of preadipocytes to either the white (BMP2 and BMP4) or the brown adipocyte (BMP7) lineage. [BMP7 also increases mitochondrial biogenesis leading to increased energy expenditure [27,33?6]. By contrast, TGF-b1 and activin inhibit the differenMIC-1/GDF15 Regulates Appetite and Body Weighttiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes and hamper lipid accumulation [37?9]. Additionally, in mouse knockout models, growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF3) deficient mice displayed increased basal metabolic rate, and myostatin deficient mice displayed decreased skeletal muscle mass with increased adiposity [40?2], which contrasted to what female MIC-12/2 exhibited, suggesting a novel role of MIC-1/GDF15 in the 26001275 regulation of metabolic rate and possibly also myogenesis. Both male and female MIC-12/2 mice have increased white.

Leave a Reply