Vine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) with 10 Serum SubstituteImmunofluorescence Staining of Growth

Vine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) with 10 Serum SubstituteImmunofluorescence Staining of Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Human EmbryosCleavage-stage embryos derived from tri-pronuclear zygotes were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde for 30 min at 23uC. After permeabilization with 0.1 Triton X-100, embryos were preincubated in 5 BSA for 1 h before incubation with specific primary antibodies diluted in PBS supplemented with 1 BSAHuman Embryo CultureSupplement (SSS, Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) and further Ornipressin manufacturer cultured at 37uC with 5 CO2, 5 O2 and 90 N2 with or without growth factor mixtures containing 10 ng/ml of EGF, IGFI, GM-CSF, BDNF, CSF-1, artemin, and GDNF (R D Systems). Individual embryos were cultured for 72 h in a 30 ml drop of medium and their development was evaluated. The doses of these growth factors chosen for these experiments were based on previous studies (BDNF [21], GDNF [24], artemin [8], EGF 1326631 [13], IGF-I [14], GM-CSF [17], CSF-1 [9]).Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) Analyses of Growth Factors/receptors Expression in Blastocysts and Blastocyst Adhesion and Outgrowth AssaysNormally fertilized embryos were frozen on day 5 of culture by vitrification using a Cryotop vitrification kit (KITAZATO BioPharma, Shizuoka, Japan) [18]. Among surplus frozen embryos, high quality blastocysts (3AA to 5 AA) based on Gardner’s criteria were thawed by using a Cryotop thawing kit (KITAZATO BioPharma) [18] and used for real-time RT-qPCR to determine the expression of growth factors and their receptors. Some blastocysts were subjected to blastocyst adhesion and outgrowth assays to evaluate the effects of the growth factors on implantation. Real-time RT-qPCR of transcript levels in blastocysts was performed using a SmartCycler (Takara, Tokyo, Japan) [7,19,20] with primers listed in Table S2. To determine the absolute copy 79831-76-8 number of target transcripts, cloned plasmid cDNAs for individual gene were used to generate a calibration curve. Purified plasmid cDNA templates were measured, and copy numbers were calculated based on absorbance at 260 nm. A calibration curve was created by plotting the threshold cycle against the known copy number for each plasmid template diluted in log steps from 105 to 101 copies. Each run included standards of diluted plasmids to generate a calibration curve, a negative control without a template, and samples with unknown mRNA concentrations. Data were normalized based on b-actin transcript levels. Blastocyst adhesion and outgrowth was assayed using a procedure established by Armant et al. [21]. Thawed embryos were then cultured individually in 30 ml microdrops of in the BlastAssist medium (MediCult, Mal , Denmark) for 48 h until ?they started to hatch. Individual hatching embryos were transferred to a single well of a 24-well plate coated with 200 ml of growth factor-reduced Matrigel (Becton Dickinson Labware, Oxford, UK) overlaid with 400 ml of the BlastAssist medium with or without growth factor mixtures containing 10 ng/ml of EGF, IGF-I, GM-CSF, BDNF, CSF-1, artemin, and GDNF. Blastocysts that adhered to the culture plate were designated as adhesion blastocysts. Immunostaining with cell markers indicated that the cells undergoing outgrowth were trophoblasts since they showed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin but were negative for vimentin and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (markers for ICM-derived cells). When trophoblast cells had grown outward from the adhered blastocysts and the primary trophoblast.Vine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) with 10 Serum SubstituteImmunofluorescence Staining of Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Human EmbryosCleavage-stage embryos derived from tri-pronuclear zygotes were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde for 30 min at 23uC. After permeabilization with 0.1 Triton X-100, embryos were preincubated in 5 BSA for 1 h before incubation with specific primary antibodies diluted in PBS supplemented with 1 BSAHuman Embryo CultureSupplement (SSS, Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) and further cultured at 37uC with 5 CO2, 5 O2 and 90 N2 with or without growth factor mixtures containing 10 ng/ml of EGF, IGFI, GM-CSF, BDNF, CSF-1, artemin, and GDNF (R D Systems). Individual embryos were cultured for 72 h in a 30 ml drop of medium and their development was evaluated. The doses of these growth factors chosen for these experiments were based on previous studies (BDNF [21], GDNF [24], artemin [8], EGF 1326631 [13], IGF-I [14], GM-CSF [17], CSF-1 [9]).Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) Analyses of Growth Factors/receptors Expression in Blastocysts and Blastocyst Adhesion and Outgrowth AssaysNormally fertilized embryos were frozen on day 5 of culture by vitrification using a Cryotop vitrification kit (KITAZATO BioPharma, Shizuoka, Japan) [18]. Among surplus frozen embryos, high quality blastocysts (3AA to 5 AA) based on Gardner’s criteria were thawed by using a Cryotop thawing kit (KITAZATO BioPharma) [18] and used for real-time RT-qPCR to determine the expression of growth factors and their receptors. Some blastocysts were subjected to blastocyst adhesion and outgrowth assays to evaluate the effects of the growth factors on implantation. Real-time RT-qPCR of transcript levels in blastocysts was performed using a SmartCycler (Takara, Tokyo, Japan) [7,19,20] with primers listed in Table S2. To determine the absolute copy number of target transcripts, cloned plasmid cDNAs for individual gene were used to generate a calibration curve. Purified plasmid cDNA templates were measured, and copy numbers were calculated based on absorbance at 260 nm. A calibration curve was created by plotting the threshold cycle against the known copy number for each plasmid template diluted in log steps from 105 to 101 copies. Each run included standards of diluted plasmids to generate a calibration curve, a negative control without a template, and samples with unknown mRNA concentrations. Data were normalized based on b-actin transcript levels. Blastocyst adhesion and outgrowth was assayed using a procedure established by Armant et al. [21]. Thawed embryos were then cultured individually in 30 ml microdrops of in the BlastAssist medium (MediCult, Mal , Denmark) for 48 h until ?they started to hatch. Individual hatching embryos were transferred to a single well of a 24-well plate coated with 200 ml of growth factor-reduced Matrigel (Becton Dickinson Labware, Oxford, UK) overlaid with 400 ml of the BlastAssist medium with or without growth factor mixtures containing 10 ng/ml of EGF, IGF-I, GM-CSF, BDNF, CSF-1, artemin, and GDNF. Blastocysts that adhered to the culture plate were designated as adhesion blastocysts. Immunostaining with cell markers indicated that the cells undergoing outgrowth were trophoblasts since they showed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin but were negative for vimentin and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (markers for ICM-derived cells). When trophoblast cells had grown outward from the adhered blastocysts and the primary trophoblast.

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