Ally significant changes between OR6 cells lacking a functional HCV 1b

Ally significant changes between OR6 cells lacking a functional HCV 1b full replicon (hereafter referred to as “cured”) and HCV-infected OR6 cells (Fig. 1A). CLOCK mRNA resulted significantly downregulated at 1 h after serum shock in OR6 induced to express HCV full length RNA when compared to cured OR6 cells (Fig. 1A). ARNTL2 mRNA levels showed a trend, though not reaching statistical significance, towards a decrease over all the time points considered in HCV-infected compared to cured OR6. Moreover, time related patterns of expression of PER1 and PER3 were asynchronous in induced OR6 as compared to control cells. We then sought to confirm if PER2 and CRY2 mRNA dowregulation was similarly observed at the protein level. PERand CRY2 proteins were found decreased in OR6 HCV replicating cells as compared to control cells (Figure 2A).PER2 Overexpression Hampers HCV RNA ReplicationIn order to elucidate the interplay between the clock gene machinery and HCV replication, we decided to focus our attention on the role of PER2, as its role in regulating the daily rhythm of IFN-c and its tumor suppressor activity have been already demonstrated [20,21]. For this purpose, we overexpressed Flag-tagged Per2 protein [18] in OR6 cells replicating the HCV genotype 1b full length RNA (Figure 2B). The efficiency of transfection was about 50?0 in OR6 cells (data not shown). As previously described, OR6 cells contain a very efficient luciferase reporter system for monitoring HCV RNA levels [16]. Upon PER2 overexpression, we observed approximately 35 reduction in luciferase activity in HCV-expressing OR6 cells compared to untransfected cells (Fig. 2C). Consistently, HCV RNA levels were significantly reduced by 27 in PER2-overexpressing OR6 cells, as assessed by qRT-PCR (Fig. 2D). Altogether, these 11967625 data demonstrate for the first time that circadian protein PER2 can hinder the replication of HCV genotype 1b.HCV Alters Hepatic Clock Gene ExpressionFigure 5. Immunoblot detection of circadian proteins in Huh-7 cells expressing the HCV core protein genotype 1b or 3a and GFPexpressing control cells. (A) 48 hours after transfection cells were lysed and equal amounts of proteins were loaded on a 10 86168-78-7 manufacturer polyacrylamide gel, separated by electrophoresis and immunoblotted with specific Rev-Erba, Rora, CLOCK, ARNTL, ARNTL2, PER1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2 primary antibodies. b-actin expression served as loading control. (B) Densitometric quantification of CRY2, PER2 and CLOCK proteins normalized to b-actin expression of three different experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.Cyproconazole 0060527.gInterferon Stimulated Genes in OR6 Cells Overexpressing PER2 ProteinBiomolecules mediating innate immune defenses, such as the Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) products, can prevent the translation of HCV and cellular mRNAs to limit viral replication and can also initiate apoptosis if the cell is overwhelmed. In order to replicate, HCV machinery can interact directly with ISGs and neutralize their expression and function. To understand the role of PER2 in diminishing HCV RNA replication we evaluated by qRT-PCR the mRNA expression levels of a subset of ISGs (OAS1, Mx1, IRF9, PKR) in PER2 overexpressing OR6 HCV RNA replicating and cured cells as compared to GFP-transfected OR6 HCV replicating and cured cells. OR6 cells expressed OAS1, Mx1, IRF9 and PKR at the mRNA level, both in cured and infected cells (Figure 3, A-D). PER2 overexpression had no effect in cured cells, compared to the condition of GF.Ally significant changes between OR6 cells lacking a functional HCV 1b full replicon (hereafter referred to as “cured”) and HCV-infected OR6 cells (Fig. 1A). CLOCK mRNA resulted significantly downregulated at 1 h after serum shock in OR6 induced to express HCV full length RNA when compared to cured OR6 cells (Fig. 1A). ARNTL2 mRNA levels showed a trend, though not reaching statistical significance, towards a decrease over all the time points considered in HCV-infected compared to cured OR6. Moreover, time related patterns of expression of PER1 and PER3 were asynchronous in induced OR6 as compared to control cells. We then sought to confirm if PER2 and CRY2 mRNA dowregulation was similarly observed at the protein level. PERand CRY2 proteins were found decreased in OR6 HCV replicating cells as compared to control cells (Figure 2A).PER2 Overexpression Hampers HCV RNA ReplicationIn order to elucidate the interplay between the clock gene machinery and HCV replication, we decided to focus our attention on the role of PER2, as its role in regulating the daily rhythm of IFN-c and its tumor suppressor activity have been already demonstrated [20,21]. For this purpose, we overexpressed Flag-tagged Per2 protein [18] in OR6 cells replicating the HCV genotype 1b full length RNA (Figure 2B). The efficiency of transfection was about 50?0 in OR6 cells (data not shown). As previously described, OR6 cells contain a very efficient luciferase reporter system for monitoring HCV RNA levels [16]. Upon PER2 overexpression, we observed approximately 35 reduction in luciferase activity in HCV-expressing OR6 cells compared to untransfected cells (Fig. 2C). Consistently, HCV RNA levels were significantly reduced by 27 in PER2-overexpressing OR6 cells, as assessed by qRT-PCR (Fig. 2D). Altogether, these 11967625 data demonstrate for the first time that circadian protein PER2 can hinder the replication of HCV genotype 1b.HCV Alters Hepatic Clock Gene ExpressionFigure 5. Immunoblot detection of circadian proteins in Huh-7 cells expressing the HCV core protein genotype 1b or 3a and GFPexpressing control cells. (A) 48 hours after transfection cells were lysed and equal amounts of proteins were loaded on a 10 polyacrylamide gel, separated by electrophoresis and immunoblotted with specific Rev-Erba, Rora, CLOCK, ARNTL, ARNTL2, PER1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2 primary antibodies. b-actin expression served as loading control. (B) Densitometric quantification of CRY2, PER2 and CLOCK proteins normalized to b-actin expression of three different experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060527.gInterferon Stimulated Genes in OR6 Cells Overexpressing PER2 ProteinBiomolecules mediating innate immune defenses, such as the Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) products, can prevent the translation of HCV and cellular mRNAs to limit viral replication and can also initiate apoptosis if the cell is overwhelmed. In order to replicate, HCV machinery can interact directly with ISGs and neutralize their expression and function. To understand the role of PER2 in diminishing HCV RNA replication we evaluated by qRT-PCR the mRNA expression levels of a subset of ISGs (OAS1, Mx1, IRF9, PKR) in PER2 overexpressing OR6 HCV RNA replicating and cured cells as compared to GFP-transfected OR6 HCV replicating and cured cells. OR6 cells expressed OAS1, Mx1, IRF9 and PKR at the mRNA level, both in cured and infected cells (Figure 3, A-D). PER2 overexpression had no effect in cured cells, compared to the condition of GF.

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