Were fixed in 4 buffered paraformaldehyde for 1 h at 4uC, washed in

Were fixed in 4 buffered paraformaldehyde for 1 h at 4uC, BI-78D3 washed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 0.01 sodium deoxycholate and 0.02 NP-40), and then stained overnight at 4uC with 1 mg/ ml of the X-gal MK-8931 web substrate in fresh 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide and 5 mM potassium ferricyanide. After staining, samples were washed and post-fixed in 4 buffered 25033180 formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding.Cell CultureThe gastric cancer cell lines AGS and NCI-N87 were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) then grown to 80 confluence in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10 FBS and 1 antibiotics. Following serum starvation for 24 h, cells were treated with IL-1b (0.1 ng/Gli2 Represses GastrinFigure 3. IL-1b induced Gli2, but not Hh signaling in gastric epithelial cells. A) Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, IL-11 and INFc were determined in the stomachs of Gast+/+ and Gast2/2 mice by qRT-PCR. The gastric cell line AGS was treated with 0.1 ng/ml of IL-1b for different time points and their gene expression of GLI2 (B), GLI1 (C) and GAST (D) were measured. Data presented as mean 6 SEM. N = 8 per group in panel A. B, C and D: N = 3 independent experiments. *P#0.05, **P#0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048039.gml, R D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) in serum-free culture medium.Quantitative RT-PCRFor mRNA extraction, samples were homogenized in Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) followed by phenol-chloroform RNA extraction, and purification with the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). First strand cDNA was synthesized using i-script (BioRad, Hercules, CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Triplicates for each sample were amplified by qPCR in a BioRad iCycler using SYBR green. The primer sequences for PCR amplification are shown in Table S1.Luciferase activity was normalized to total protein content, which was determined by Bradford colorimetric assay (BCA) Protein Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). The data were expressed as the mean 6SEM for three independent experiments performed in triplicate.Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) AssayThe ChIP kit from Millipore (Millipore, Temecula, CA) was according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, after crosslinking with formaldehyde, AGS cells were collected, lysed then sonicated to shear DNA to an average fragment size of 200?1000 bp. For the “input,” 1 of the lysate was removed for PCR analysis and the remainder was used for immunoprecipitation overnight at 4uC with either rabbit IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), rabbit anti-ZBP-89 [31] or antiGLI2 antibodies (Abcam, Cambridge, MA). The crosslinking was reversed and DNA was recovered using QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). The following primers were used to amplify 216 bp of the proximal gastrin promoter (from 592218 and 3922 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site): forward 59GCTCCAGCCCCTCACCATGAAG-39; reverse 59TTGATGCTCCAGGCCTGCCTTA-39.Plasmids, Transfections and Luciferase AssayAll plasmid constructs used in the experiments have been described previously [26,27,28,29,30]. AGS cells were transiently transfected for 48 h with the indicated plasmids using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cell lysates were harvested to determine luciferase activity using the DualLuciferase Reporter Assay kit (Promega, Madison, WI) and PerkinElmer (Waltham, MA) Wallac Victor.Were fixed in 4 buffered paraformaldehyde for 1 h at 4uC, washed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 0.01 sodium deoxycholate and 0.02 NP-40), and then stained overnight at 4uC with 1 mg/ ml of the X-gal substrate in fresh 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide and 5 mM potassium ferricyanide. After staining, samples were washed and post-fixed in 4 buffered 25033180 formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding.Cell CultureThe gastric cancer cell lines AGS and NCI-N87 were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) then grown to 80 confluence in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10 FBS and 1 antibiotics. Following serum starvation for 24 h, cells were treated with IL-1b (0.1 ng/Gli2 Represses GastrinFigure 3. IL-1b induced Gli2, but not Hh signaling in gastric epithelial cells. A) Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, IL-11 and INFc were determined in the stomachs of Gast+/+ and Gast2/2 mice by qRT-PCR. The gastric cell line AGS was treated with 0.1 ng/ml of IL-1b for different time points and their gene expression of GLI2 (B), GLI1 (C) and GAST (D) were measured. Data presented as mean 6 SEM. N = 8 per group in panel A. B, C and D: N = 3 independent experiments. *P#0.05, **P#0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048039.gml, R D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) in serum-free culture medium.Quantitative RT-PCRFor mRNA extraction, samples were homogenized in Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) followed by phenol-chloroform RNA extraction, and purification with the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). First strand cDNA was synthesized using i-script (BioRad, Hercules, CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Triplicates for each sample were amplified by qPCR in a BioRad iCycler using SYBR green. The primer sequences for PCR amplification are shown in Table S1.Luciferase activity was normalized to total protein content, which was determined by Bradford colorimetric assay (BCA) Protein Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). The data were expressed as the mean 6SEM for three independent experiments performed in triplicate.Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) AssayThe ChIP kit from Millipore (Millipore, Temecula, CA) was according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, after crosslinking with formaldehyde, AGS cells were collected, lysed then sonicated to shear DNA to an average fragment size of 200?1000 bp. For the “input,” 1 of the lysate was removed for PCR analysis and the remainder was used for immunoprecipitation overnight at 4uC with either rabbit IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), rabbit anti-ZBP-89 [31] or antiGLI2 antibodies (Abcam, Cambridge, MA). The crosslinking was reversed and DNA was recovered using QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). The following primers were used to amplify 216 bp of the proximal gastrin promoter (from 592218 and 3922 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site): forward 59GCTCCAGCCCCTCACCATGAAG-39; reverse 59TTGATGCTCCAGGCCTGCCTTA-39.Plasmids, Transfections and Luciferase AssayAll plasmid constructs used in the experiments have been described previously [26,27,28,29,30]. AGS cells were transiently transfected for 48 h with the indicated plasmids using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cell lysates were harvested to determine luciferase activity using the DualLuciferase Reporter Assay kit (Promega, Madison, WI) and PerkinElmer (Waltham, MA) Wallac Victor.

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