Phosphorylation in response to insulin

Phosphorylation in response to PS-1145 chemical information insulin 1516647 exposure, however, siRNA-mediated silencing of nexilin in L6 myotubes did not appear to have any discernible effects on the phosphotyrosine levels of IRS1 in cells incubated with maximal concentrations (100 nM) of insulin. We next sought to evaluate IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation status under a submaximal dose (10 nM) of insulin. Interestingly, we found that silencing of nexilin under these conditions led to enhancedassociation of the p85/IRS1 signaling complex at earlier time points in the absence of any order 374913-63-0 changes in IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation (Fig. 4B). Thus our data would appear to indicate that the temporal release of IRS1 from nexilin/cytoskeletal scaffolds increases its coupling efficiency to downstream signalling intermediates. To test this idea, we assessed the effect of nexilin knockdown on PI3K activation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5triphosphate (PIP3) production using single cell assays. To this end we made use of a fluorescent indicator consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tag fused to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general receptor for phosphoinositides-1 (GRP1). GRP1-PH-GFP has been shown to have a high affinity and strong selectivity for PIP3 (Kd, ,25 nM) [33] and as such we used it here as a surrogate marker of PI3K activity. L6 myoblasts were transiently transfected with siNex or siScr control oligos together with GRP1-PH-GFP and cells were subsequently serumstarved or stimulated 5 min with 10 nM insulin prior to being fixed and analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence analysis (Fig. 5). Under basal conditions, the GRP1-PH-GFP signal was prominently concentrated in the nucleus of L6 cells and faintly diffused throughout the cytosol as has previously been reported [33]. Upon exposure of siScr control cells to insulin, there was a small but notable concentration of GRP1-PH-GFP into distinct projections at the cell periphery, consistent with studies in L6 cells showing accumulation of PIP3 in actin remodeled structures at the dorsal surface of insulin-treated myoblasts [22] (Fig 5A, Left Panel, arrow heads). Significantly, in cells depleted of nexilin (as denoted by lack of nexilin staining), there was a pronounced increase in the intensity and size of GRP1-PH-GFP signals at peripheral membrane ruffles in insulin stimulated L6 cells, indicative of greater localized PIP3 production (Fig 5A, Right Panel). It is important to note that we did not observe any morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton when nexilin was silenced under basal or insulin-stimulated conditions (Fig. 5B). Thus we propose that nexilin acts to constrain IRS1/PI3K complex formation and activation leading to PIP3 production at peripheral membranes. To test this idea further, we evaluated the effect of nexilin overexpression on insulin-stimulated PIP3 production in L6 cells. L6 myoblasts were transfected with either FLAG-nexilin or vector control together with GRP1-PH-GFP and left in serum-starved medium or stimulated with insulin , and subsequently subjected to confocal microscopy analysis (Fig 6). In control cells, insulin stimulation at a concentration of 100 nM evoked intense accumulation of PIP3 at membrane ruffles, whereas in Flagnexilin positive L6 cells, this gain in GRP1-PH-GFP signals at the cell periphery was barely discernible (Fig. 6A). We noted that this inhibition of localized PIP3 production by Flag-nexilin was notFigure 4. Silencing of nexilin enhances IRS1/PI3K assembly. L6.Phosphorylation in response to insulin 1516647 exposure, however, siRNA-mediated silencing of nexilin in L6 myotubes did not appear to have any discernible effects on the phosphotyrosine levels of IRS1 in cells incubated with maximal concentrations (100 nM) of insulin. We next sought to evaluate IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation status under a submaximal dose (10 nM) of insulin. Interestingly, we found that silencing of nexilin under these conditions led to enhancedassociation of the p85/IRS1 signaling complex at earlier time points in the absence of any changes in IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation (Fig. 4B). Thus our data would appear to indicate that the temporal release of IRS1 from nexilin/cytoskeletal scaffolds increases its coupling efficiency to downstream signalling intermediates. To test this idea, we assessed the effect of nexilin knockdown on PI3K activation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5triphosphate (PIP3) production using single cell assays. To this end we made use of a fluorescent indicator consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tag fused to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general receptor for phosphoinositides-1 (GRP1). GRP1-PH-GFP has been shown to have a high affinity and strong selectivity for PIP3 (Kd, ,25 nM) [33] and as such we used it here as a surrogate marker of PI3K activity. L6 myoblasts were transiently transfected with siNex or siScr control oligos together with GRP1-PH-GFP and cells were subsequently serumstarved or stimulated 5 min with 10 nM insulin prior to being fixed and analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence analysis (Fig. 5). Under basal conditions, the GRP1-PH-GFP signal was prominently concentrated in the nucleus of L6 cells and faintly diffused throughout the cytosol as has previously been reported [33]. Upon exposure of siScr control cells to insulin, there was a small but notable concentration of GRP1-PH-GFP into distinct projections at the cell periphery, consistent with studies in L6 cells showing accumulation of PIP3 in actin remodeled structures at the dorsal surface of insulin-treated myoblasts [22] (Fig 5A, Left Panel, arrow heads). Significantly, in cells depleted of nexilin (as denoted by lack of nexilin staining), there was a pronounced increase in the intensity and size of GRP1-PH-GFP signals at peripheral membrane ruffles in insulin stimulated L6 cells, indicative of greater localized PIP3 production (Fig 5A, Right Panel). It is important to note that we did not observe any morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton when nexilin was silenced under basal or insulin-stimulated conditions (Fig. 5B). Thus we propose that nexilin acts to constrain IRS1/PI3K complex formation and activation leading to PIP3 production at peripheral membranes. To test this idea further, we evaluated the effect of nexilin overexpression on insulin-stimulated PIP3 production in L6 cells. L6 myoblasts were transfected with either FLAG-nexilin or vector control together with GRP1-PH-GFP and left in serum-starved medium or stimulated with insulin , and subsequently subjected to confocal microscopy analysis (Fig 6). In control cells, insulin stimulation at a concentration of 100 nM evoked intense accumulation of PIP3 at membrane ruffles, whereas in Flagnexilin positive L6 cells, this gain in GRP1-PH-GFP signals at the cell periphery was barely discernible (Fig. 6A). We noted that this inhibition of localized PIP3 production by Flag-nexilin was notFigure 4. Silencing of nexilin enhances IRS1/PI3K assembly. L6.

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