Better understanding the molecular ecology of O. formosanus as reported in

Better understanding the molecular ecology of O. formosanus as reported in the other termite species [30]. However, all the predicted SSRs need to be verified to exclude false positives and sequencing errors.Chebulagic acid putative Genes Involved in Caste DifferentiationThe progress in molecular, genomic, and integrative biology have greatly improved understanding molecular basis underlying caste differentiation in termites [31]. From the current transcriptome database, we obtained seven putative genes with significant hits to 7 different genes known to be involved in termite caste differentiation by BLASTX analyses (Table 3). The previous RNAi analysis showed that the two genes (hexamerin 1 and 2) participate in the regulation of caste differentiation in Reticulitermes flavipes [1]. The gene, Neofem2 coding for b-glycosidase, was necessary for the queen to suppress worker reproduction [4]. The gene, Rf b-NAC-1 homologous to bicaudal, might affect the generalized soldier body plan [32]. In R. flavipes, multiple fat-bodyrelated CYP4 genes were differentially expressed in workers after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment [33]. The gene, Nts19-1 which encodes putative homologues of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase gene, is highly expressed exclusively in soldier head of Nasutitermes takasagoensis [34]. The head cDNAs analysis revealed that Cox III is differentially expressed between castes of R. santonensis, with lowest levels in the soldiers [35].peptide sequences. In total, 30,606 and 6,429 SIS3 site unigenes were predicted by using BLASTX and ESTScan, respectively. The histogram as seen in Figure S1 and Figure S2 shows the length distribution of CDS predicted from BLAST and ESTScan results. In general, as the sequence length increases, the number of CDS becomes gradually reduced. This is consistent with the results of unigene assembly.Frequency and Distribution of EST-SSRs in the Head TranscriptomeIn total, 10,052 sequences containing 11,661 SSRs were predicted from 116,885 consensus sequences (Table S3). The EST-SSR frequency in the head transcriptome was 9.98 . TheFigure 3. Effect of query sequence length on the percentage of sequences with significant matches. The proportion of sequences with matches (with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5) in nr database is greater among the longer assembled sequences. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 4. Characteristics of homology search of Illumina sequences against the nr database. (A) E-value distribution of BLAST hits for each unique sequence with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5. (B) Similarity distribution of the top BLAST hits for each sequence. 24786787 (C) Species distribution is shown as a percentage of the total homologous sequences with an E-value of at least 1.0E-5. We used the first hit of each sequence for analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gIn this study, we selected three genes homologous to hexamerin 2, b-glycosidase and bicaudal D to analyze their expression differences among workers, soldiers and larvae of O. formosanus (Table S4), in order to detect whether the three genes are related to the caste differentiation of O. formosanus. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that there was a significant difference in expression level of hexamerin 2 among workers, soldiers and larvae (P,0.05). The hexamerin 2 expression level in larvae was significantly higher than workers and soldiers, but there was no significant difference between workers an.Better understanding the molecular ecology of O. formosanus as reported in the other termite species [30]. However, all the predicted SSRs need to be verified to exclude false positives and sequencing errors.Putative Genes Involved in Caste DifferentiationThe progress in molecular, genomic, and integrative biology have greatly improved understanding molecular basis underlying caste differentiation in termites [31]. From the current transcriptome database, we obtained seven putative genes with significant hits to 7 different genes known to be involved in termite caste differentiation by BLASTX analyses (Table 3). The previous RNAi analysis showed that the two genes (hexamerin 1 and 2) participate in the regulation of caste differentiation in Reticulitermes flavipes [1]. The gene, Neofem2 coding for b-glycosidase, was necessary for the queen to suppress worker reproduction [4]. The gene, Rf b-NAC-1 homologous to bicaudal, might affect the generalized soldier body plan [32]. In R. flavipes, multiple fat-bodyrelated CYP4 genes were differentially expressed in workers after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment [33]. The gene, Nts19-1 which encodes putative homologues of the geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase gene, is highly expressed exclusively in soldier head of Nasutitermes takasagoensis [34]. The head cDNAs analysis revealed that Cox III is differentially expressed between castes of R. santonensis, with lowest levels in the soldiers [35].peptide sequences. In total, 30,606 and 6,429 unigenes were predicted by using BLASTX and ESTScan, respectively. The histogram as seen in Figure S1 and Figure S2 shows the length distribution of CDS predicted from BLAST and ESTScan results. In general, as the sequence length increases, the number of CDS becomes gradually reduced. This is consistent with the results of unigene assembly.Frequency and Distribution of EST-SSRs in the Head TranscriptomeIn total, 10,052 sequences containing 11,661 SSRs were predicted from 116,885 consensus sequences (Table S3). The EST-SSR frequency in the head transcriptome was 9.98 . TheFigure 3. Effect of query sequence length on the percentage of sequences with significant matches. The proportion of sequences with matches (with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5) in nr database is greater among the longer assembled sequences. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gTranscriptome and Gene Expression in TermiteFigure 4. Characteristics of homology search of Illumina sequences against the nr database. (A) E-value distribution of BLAST hits for each unique sequence with a cut-off E-value of 1.0E-5. (B) Similarity distribution of the top BLAST hits for each sequence. 24786787 (C) Species distribution is shown as a percentage of the total homologous sequences with an E-value of at least 1.0E-5. We used the first hit of each sequence for analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050383.gIn this study, we selected three genes homologous to hexamerin 2, b-glycosidase and bicaudal D to analyze their expression differences among workers, soldiers and larvae of O. formosanus (Table S4), in order to detect whether the three genes are related to the caste differentiation of O. formosanus. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that there was a significant difference in expression level of hexamerin 2 among workers, soldiers and larvae (P,0.05). The hexamerin 2 expression level in larvae was significantly higher than workers and soldiers, but there was no significant difference between workers an.

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