Otes angiogenesis, a key physiologic adaptive response of tissues to hypoxia

Otes angiogenesis, a key physiologic adaptive response of tissues to hypoxia and probably IH. VEGF has also been implicated through its pro-inflammatory effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis [63,64]. Further studies are planned to evaluate whether increased VEGF in severely hypoxemic patients is truly adaptive and protective of cardiovascular events or, contrary, is a marker of increased inflammation, and hence of increased cardiovascular risk. Some studies do suggest that OSA patients free of known cardiovascular risk factors have increased circulating levels of 10457188 VEGF [65,66,67,68]. Likewise, we plan to evaluate whether decreased VEGF mRNA levels in patients with mild hypoxemia are indicative of increased vascular risk, or mark a lower inflammatory insult and hence lesser vascular risk. More mechanistic studies addressing these questions could now be envisioned in our mouse and cell culture models of IH, although we do recognize that the cell culture system is limited to studying EC responses, whereas gene profiling obtained from skin biopsies and whole aortas reflects the “transcriptome” of several cell types that can also modulate their expression of HIF1a, and VEGF in response to IH. In summary, our data demonstrate that gene expression profile in skin biopsies of OSA patients varied according to severity of hypoxemia. Even though more investigations are required to determine the contribution of these differences in mRNA levels of eNOS, VEGF, A20 and HIF-1a to the Title Loaded From File pathophysiology of OSAinduced vascular dysfunction, these genes represent potential markers distinguishing mildly from severely hypoxemic OSA patients. Since the genes we investigated are relevant to EC functions, we anticipate that their molecular signature could be useful in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in OSA patients. Further long-term studies of a larger cohort of patients are planned to validate this assumption.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AM EK CF AV. Performed the experiments: EK DNC EC OK JPB FT CPO. Analyzed the data: EK AM CF CPO JPB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EK AM AV CPO. Wrote the paper: EK CF AM JPB CPO. Critically revised the manuscript and read its final version: EK JPB DNC EC OK AV FT CPO CF AM.
Ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Despite numerous clinical trials, many neuroprotective therapies have failed [1]. Title Loaded From File Protecting brain tissue from ischemic injury is a considerable challenge in stroke treatment strategies. However, not all brain cells die immediately after an ischemic event. Surrounding the core of severely and rapidly injured brain tissue, cell death spreads slowly in a heterogeneous region called the penumbra, which is salvageable [2]. While numerous preclinical studies demonstrated that neuroprotective strategies significantly reduce the ischemic penumbra [3], many strategies have failed in clinical trials for several reasons [4]. For example, reactions to compounds and peptides may differ between test animals and humans. We hypothesized that endogenous human proteins should not evoke adverse reactions and might be ideal neuroprotective molecules for treating ischemic stroke patients.Neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia involves a complex series of cellular stresses, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, all of which can lead to cell death [5,6]. Thus, multifunctional molecules that suppress cell death, are antiapoptotic, and scavenge free radi.Otes angiogenesis, a key physiologic adaptive response of tissues to hypoxia and probably IH. VEGF has also been implicated through its pro-inflammatory effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis [63,64]. Further studies are planned to evaluate whether increased VEGF in severely hypoxemic patients is truly adaptive and protective of cardiovascular events or, contrary, is a marker of increased inflammation, and hence of increased cardiovascular risk. Some studies do suggest that OSA patients free of known cardiovascular risk factors have increased circulating levels of 10457188 VEGF [65,66,67,68]. Likewise, we plan to evaluate whether decreased VEGF mRNA levels in patients with mild hypoxemia are indicative of increased vascular risk, or mark a lower inflammatory insult and hence lesser vascular risk. More mechanistic studies addressing these questions could now be envisioned in our mouse and cell culture models of IH, although we do recognize that the cell culture system is limited to studying EC responses, whereas gene profiling obtained from skin biopsies and whole aortas reflects the “transcriptome” of several cell types that can also modulate their expression of HIF1a, and VEGF in response to IH. In summary, our data demonstrate that gene expression profile in skin biopsies of OSA patients varied according to severity of hypoxemia. Even though more investigations are required to determine the contribution of these differences in mRNA levels of eNOS, VEGF, A20 and HIF-1a to the pathophysiology of OSAinduced vascular dysfunction, these genes represent potential markers distinguishing mildly from severely hypoxemic OSA patients. Since the genes we investigated are relevant to EC functions, we anticipate that their molecular signature could be useful in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in OSA patients. Further long-term studies of a larger cohort of patients are planned to validate this assumption.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AM EK CF AV. Performed the experiments: EK DNC EC OK JPB FT CPO. Analyzed the data: EK AM CF CPO JPB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EK AM AV CPO. Wrote the paper: EK CF AM JPB CPO. Critically revised the manuscript and read its final version: EK JPB DNC EC OK AV FT CPO CF AM.
Ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Despite numerous clinical trials, many neuroprotective therapies have failed [1]. Protecting brain tissue from ischemic injury is a considerable challenge in stroke treatment strategies. However, not all brain cells die immediately after an ischemic event. Surrounding the core of severely and rapidly injured brain tissue, cell death spreads slowly in a heterogeneous region called the penumbra, which is salvageable [2]. While numerous preclinical studies demonstrated that neuroprotective strategies significantly reduce the ischemic penumbra [3], many strategies have failed in clinical trials for several reasons [4]. For example, reactions to compounds and peptides may differ between test animals and humans. We hypothesized that endogenous human proteins should not evoke adverse reactions and might be ideal neuroprotective molecules for treating ischemic stroke patients.Neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia involves a complex series of cellular stresses, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, all of which can lead to cell death [5,6]. Thus, multifunctional molecules that suppress cell death, are antiapoptotic, and scavenge free radi.

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