Ustom R module and the correlations and corresponding attributes were imported

Ustom R module and the correlations and corresponding attributes were imported into Cytoscape [27] for visualization of the network models. The Intersection of theFigure 5. Genera of macaque lower genital tract bacteria. The genital microbiota in 21 macaques was identified at two times (approximately 8 months apart). Each group of two bars represents the hPTH (1-34) web relative proportions of 16S sequences indentifying bacterial genera in one macaque at the two different time points. Only the 15 most predominant genera are displayed for clarity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052992.gCervicovaginal Inflammation in Rhesus MacaquesFigure 6. Network of statistical correlations between microbiota. A. Strong (.0.7) correlations between Microbiota at time point 1. B. Intersection of strong correlations that existed at both time 1 and time 2. Pink circles bacterial DNA levels. The blue lines indicate a positive correlation between the parameters in the circles and the width of the line is proportional to the strength of the correlation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052992.gIn addition, there was a strong positive correlation between the mRNA 1485-00-3 site Levels of MIP1a and MIP1b (Figure 3a). At Time point 2 (November 2011), there were also strong correlations between MIP1a, MIP1b and TNF mRNA levels (Figure 3b). In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between the mRNA levels of Mx and IP-10 at Time point 2 (Figure 3b). The correlations between MIP1a, MIP1b and TNF mRNAs were found at both time points and network analysis demonstrated that these correlations intersect (Figure 3c), thus there was a consistent association between the expression levels of these three inflammatory mediators in the lower female genital tract.The Protein Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Cervicovaginal Secretions Vary Greatly Among RMOf the 12 cytokines and chemokines assessed in the Time point 2 CVS samples collected from 19?2 RM, the median concentration of 3 cytokines IL-6 (median 6.34 pg/ml), IL-1b (median 170.3 pg/ml), IL-8 (median 2997 pg/ml); and 2 chemokines CXCL10 (median 4193 pg/ml), and CCL5 (median 31.21 pg/ml) were higher than 5 pg/ml (Figure 4). The median concentration of IL-12p70 (median 1.88 pg/ml), TNF (median 1.99 pg/ml), IL-10 (median 0.64 pg/ml), CCL2 (median 4.62 pg/ml) and CXCL9 (median 0.26 pg/ml) did not exceed 5 pg/ml in the 23727046 CVS samples (Figure 4). Although CXCL-10, IL-1b and IL-8 were detected in 100 1326631 of samples, CCL2 was detected in 90 of samples, CCL5 was detected in 86 samples, IL-6 was detected in 80 of samples, IL12p70 was detected in 69 of samples, TNF was detected in 65 of samples, IL-10 was detected in 60 of samples and CXCL9 was detected in 50 of samples, Further, there was a wide range (10?000 fold) in the concentration of every cytokine and chemokine assayed in the CVS samples (Figure 4). This isconsistent with wide variation in the levels of genital tract inflammation between the RM in the study. Network analysis of correlations between protein levels of the different host cytokines and chemokines at the second time point showed strong (.0.7 coefficient) positive correlations between IL-8 and IP-10 protein levels and Mx and IP10 mRNA levels. Based in the protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the CVS samples, it is apparent that there is extreme variability in the degree of cervicovaginal inflammation between captive rhesus macaques. Further, the mRNA levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines differed by less tha.Ustom R module and the correlations and corresponding attributes were imported into Cytoscape [27] for visualization of the network models. The Intersection of theFigure 5. Genera of macaque lower genital tract bacteria. The genital microbiota in 21 macaques was identified at two times (approximately 8 months apart). Each group of two bars represents the relative proportions of 16S sequences indentifying bacterial genera in one macaque at the two different time points. Only the 15 most predominant genera are displayed for clarity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052992.gCervicovaginal Inflammation in Rhesus MacaquesFigure 6. Network of statistical correlations between microbiota. A. Strong (.0.7) correlations between Microbiota at time point 1. B. Intersection of strong correlations that existed at both time 1 and time 2. Pink circles bacterial DNA levels. The blue lines indicate a positive correlation between the parameters in the circles and the width of the line is proportional to the strength of the correlation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052992.gIn addition, there was a strong positive correlation between the mRNA levels of MIP1a and MIP1b (Figure 3a). At Time point 2 (November 2011), there were also strong correlations between MIP1a, MIP1b and TNF mRNA levels (Figure 3b). In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between the mRNA levels of Mx and IP-10 at Time point 2 (Figure 3b). The correlations between MIP1a, MIP1b and TNF mRNAs were found at both time points and network analysis demonstrated that these correlations intersect (Figure 3c), thus there was a consistent association between the expression levels of these three inflammatory mediators in the lower female genital tract.The Protein Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Cervicovaginal Secretions Vary Greatly Among RMOf the 12 cytokines and chemokines assessed in the Time point 2 CVS samples collected from 19?2 RM, the median concentration of 3 cytokines IL-6 (median 6.34 pg/ml), IL-1b (median 170.3 pg/ml), IL-8 (median 2997 pg/ml); and 2 chemokines CXCL10 (median 4193 pg/ml), and CCL5 (median 31.21 pg/ml) were higher than 5 pg/ml (Figure 4). The median concentration of IL-12p70 (median 1.88 pg/ml), TNF (median 1.99 pg/ml), IL-10 (median 0.64 pg/ml), CCL2 (median 4.62 pg/ml) and CXCL9 (median 0.26 pg/ml) did not exceed 5 pg/ml in the 23727046 CVS samples (Figure 4). Although CXCL-10, IL-1b and IL-8 were detected in 100 1326631 of samples, CCL2 was detected in 90 of samples, CCL5 was detected in 86 samples, IL-6 was detected in 80 of samples, IL12p70 was detected in 69 of samples, TNF was detected in 65 of samples, IL-10 was detected in 60 of samples and CXCL9 was detected in 50 of samples, Further, there was a wide range (10?000 fold) in the concentration of every cytokine and chemokine assayed in the CVS samples (Figure 4). This isconsistent with wide variation in the levels of genital tract inflammation between the RM in the study. Network analysis of correlations between protein levels of the different host cytokines and chemokines at the second time point showed strong (.0.7 coefficient) positive correlations between IL-8 and IP-10 protein levels and Mx and IP10 mRNA levels. Based in the protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the CVS samples, it is apparent that there is extreme variability in the degree of cervicovaginal inflammation between captive rhesus macaques. Further, the mRNA levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines differed by less tha.

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