N alterations of CNS function with encephalopathy and neurologic illness [49,50,51]. While

N alterations of CNS function with encephalopathy and neurologic TBHQ manufacturer illness [49,50,51]. While our investigation did not include assessments of cytokine function, such an indirect effect of Salmonella Typhi on the nervous system should be explored in future studies. Our study has limitations. We did not perform neurologic examinations on all outbreak patients, and the number of cases of neurologic illness may have been underestimated or otherwise biased. Not all patients with suspected illness were positive for or underwent testing for Salmonella Typhi infection, and misclassification of some cases is possible. While we initially screened a large number of cases for 12926553 numerous other infectious and toxic etiologies of neurologic illness, other alternative or concomitant causes of febrile neurologic illness in these persons cannot be entirely excluded. HIV, which could certainly be a contributory factor in neurologic illness occurring in this population, was not routinely tested for. Baseline neurologic status on these patients was unknown, and some may have demonstrated neurologic findings unrelated to their typhoid illness. Specifically, the presence of disproportionate cerebral atrophy on MRI in 3 cases suggests that other host factors, such as nutritional deficiencies, prior cerebral infections, antenatal/perinatal insults, or other factors may result in a background level of mild neurologic illness in this population. It is possible that severe systemic illness caused by typhoid fever, or a Salmonella Typhi-specific factor, may exacerbate mild or subclinical neurologic deficits. Our study demonstrates that persons with typhoid fever may develop acute and severe neurologic illness. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms producing these features remain unknown. The varying neurologic manifestations observed in this group of patients with typhoid-associated neurologic illness suggest involvement of multiple nervous system localizations. Neurologic illness associated with typhoid fever appears to resolve over time, with few ongoing sequelae, a feature that is important in the prognostic assessment of cases. Acute infection with Salmonella Typhi should be included in the PHCCC site differential diagnosis of persons originating or traveling from a typhoid-endemic area with acuteNeurologic Illness Assoc with Typhoid Feverfebrile neurologic illness, particularly if viral and bacterial etiologies more typically associated with neurologic 1516647 illness are not apparent. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with neurologic illness in typhoid fever is needed.Supporting InformationTable S1 Initial pathogen testing among ill persons during outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi ?Mozambique, 2009 (DOC) Video S1 18-year old female with typhoid-associated neurologic illness demonstrating severe truncal and appendicular ataxia and facial masking. (WMV)tional; United Nations International Children’s Fund; United States Agency for International Development; CDC-Malawi: Dr. Thomas Warne, Rankin Thamanda, Laston Thamangira, Victor Samidu, Ethel Mpagaja, CDC-Mozambique: Amy DuBois, Lisa Nelson; CDC-Nutritional Biomarkers Branch: Christine Pfeiffer, Michael Ryback, Usha Mandava, Huiping Chen, Donna LaVoie, Usha Mandava, Christine Pfeiffer, Daniel Rabinowitz, Michael Rybak, Rosemary Schleicher, Mary Xu, Mindy Zhang; CDC-DASH Laboratory: Nicole Burcher, Michael Dillon; CDCNCEH Laboratory: Charles Dodson; CDC-Global Disease Detection: Ray.N alterations of CNS function with encephalopathy and neurologic illness [49,50,51]. While our investigation did not include assessments of cytokine function, such an indirect effect of Salmonella Typhi on the nervous system should be explored in future studies. Our study has limitations. We did not perform neurologic examinations on all outbreak patients, and the number of cases of neurologic illness may have been underestimated or otherwise biased. Not all patients with suspected illness were positive for or underwent testing for Salmonella Typhi infection, and misclassification of some cases is possible. While we initially screened a large number of cases for 12926553 numerous other infectious and toxic etiologies of neurologic illness, other alternative or concomitant causes of febrile neurologic illness in these persons cannot be entirely excluded. HIV, which could certainly be a contributory factor in neurologic illness occurring in this population, was not routinely tested for. Baseline neurologic status on these patients was unknown, and some may have demonstrated neurologic findings unrelated to their typhoid illness. Specifically, the presence of disproportionate cerebral atrophy on MRI in 3 cases suggests that other host factors, such as nutritional deficiencies, prior cerebral infections, antenatal/perinatal insults, or other factors may result in a background level of mild neurologic illness in this population. It is possible that severe systemic illness caused by typhoid fever, or a Salmonella Typhi-specific factor, may exacerbate mild or subclinical neurologic deficits. Our study demonstrates that persons with typhoid fever may develop acute and severe neurologic illness. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms producing these features remain unknown. The varying neurologic manifestations observed in this group of patients with typhoid-associated neurologic illness suggest involvement of multiple nervous system localizations. Neurologic illness associated with typhoid fever appears to resolve over time, with few ongoing sequelae, a feature that is important in the prognostic assessment of cases. Acute infection with Salmonella Typhi should be included in the differential diagnosis of persons originating or traveling from a typhoid-endemic area with acuteNeurologic Illness Assoc with Typhoid Feverfebrile neurologic illness, particularly if viral and bacterial etiologies more typically associated with neurologic 1516647 illness are not apparent. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with neurologic illness in typhoid fever is needed.Supporting InformationTable S1 Initial pathogen testing among ill persons during outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi ?Mozambique, 2009 (DOC) Video S1 18-year old female with typhoid-associated neurologic illness demonstrating severe truncal and appendicular ataxia and facial masking. (WMV)tional; United Nations International Children’s Fund; United States Agency for International Development; CDC-Malawi: Dr. Thomas Warne, Rankin Thamanda, Laston Thamangira, Victor Samidu, Ethel Mpagaja, CDC-Mozambique: Amy DuBois, Lisa Nelson; CDC-Nutritional Biomarkers Branch: Christine Pfeiffer, Michael Ryback, Usha Mandava, Huiping Chen, Donna LaVoie, Usha Mandava, Christine Pfeiffer, Daniel Rabinowitz, Michael Rybak, Rosemary Schleicher, Mary Xu, Mindy Zhang; CDC-DASH Laboratory: Nicole Burcher, Michael Dillon; CDCNCEH Laboratory: Charles Dodson; CDC-Global Disease Detection: Ray.

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