Pecific siRNAs. The Ago1A/B-siRNA could specifically target both Ago

Pecific siRNAs. The Ago1A/B-siRNA could specifically target both Ago1A and Ago1B. The antibodies used were indicated on the left. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050581.gtion (14,0006g, 4uC), the aspirated supernatant was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The membrane was immersed in blocking buffer [5 (w/v) skim milk and 0.1 (v/v) Tween-20 in PBS] at 4uC overnight, followed by incubation with anti-FLAG antibody (Invitrogen). Subsequently, the membrane was incubated in alkaline phosphatase (AP)-get A-196 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 1 h and detected with nitro-blue tetrazolium and 5-bromo-4-chloro-39- indolyphosphate (NBT/ BCIP) solutions (Sangon).In vivo AnalysisShrimp were simultaneously injected with WSSV virions (104 copies/shrimp) and either 20 mg (low concentration) or 30 mg (high concentration) of one of the siRNAs (Ago1A-siRNA, Ago1BsiRNA, Ago1C-siRNA and Ago1A/B-siRNA) (Table S1). Negative control shrimp were injected with WSSV virions (104 copies/ shrimp) and 30 mg of control siRNA. Positive control shrimp were injected with WSSV only (104 copies/shrimp). For each treatment, a group of 10 individual shrimp were used and gill tissues were collected at 48 h post-inoculation. Three shrimp specimens were selected at random from each treatment and were subjected to qRT-PCR to quantify the mRNA levels of all three Ago1 isoforms and WSSV genome copies.Statistical AnalysisThe numerical data from three independent KDM5A-IN-1 web experiments was analyzed by one-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Statistical significance between treatments was carried out using the Student’s t-test.indicated that the Ago1 transcripts amplified here 23977191 were not generated from genomic DNA (data not shown). Multiple sequence alignments of shrimp Ago 1 isoforms (Ago1A, Ago1B, and Ago1C), Ago1, and Ago2 from other species revealed that the Ago1 sequences of M. japonicus shrimp were more closely related to Ago1 sequences of other animals, including humans, than to other animal Ago2 sequences (Fig. 2). The amino acid sequences of shrimp Ago1A, Ago1B, and Ago1C were almost identical, but differed at their N-terminal regions and PIWI domains (Fig. 1 Fig. 2). An insertion of 27 amino acid residues was found in Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms, but not in the Ago1C isoform and Ago1 homologs of other species (Fig. 1 Fig. 2), indicating that the 27-amino-acid domain might be unique in shrimp. To exclude the possibility that Ago1 isoforms were generated from various copies of the Ago1 gene in the shrimp genome, Southern and northern blot analyses were conducted. Southern blots showed a single band (Fig. 3A), suggesting that there was one copy of Ago1 in the shrimp genome. Northern blot analysis revealed that two bands were hybridized with the Ago1 probe that could detect all the three isoforms of Ago1 (Fig. 3B). Meanwhile, only one band equivalent to the upper band was detected using the Ago1-fragment 2 probe that was unique to Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms, which presumably co-migrate because of similar molecular weights (Fig. 3B). These data indicated that the Ago1 isoforms were transcribed from the same Ago1 gene and might result from alternative splicing of the Ago1 precursor mRNA.Expression Patterns of Ago1 Isoforms in ShrimpTo characterize the expression patterns of Ago1 isoforms in different organs of sh.Pecific siRNAs. The Ago1A/B-siRNA could specifically target both Ago1A and Ago1B. The antibodies used were indicated on the left. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050581.gtion (14,0006g, 4uC), the aspirated supernatant was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The membrane was immersed in blocking buffer [5 (w/v) skim milk and 0.1 (v/v) Tween-20 in PBS] at 4uC overnight, followed by incubation with anti-FLAG antibody (Invitrogen). Subsequently, the membrane was incubated in alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 1 h and detected with nitro-blue tetrazolium and 5-bromo-4-chloro-39- indolyphosphate (NBT/ BCIP) solutions (Sangon).In vivo AnalysisShrimp were simultaneously injected with WSSV virions (104 copies/shrimp) and either 20 mg (low concentration) or 30 mg (high concentration) of one of the siRNAs (Ago1A-siRNA, Ago1BsiRNA, Ago1C-siRNA and Ago1A/B-siRNA) (Table S1). Negative control shrimp were injected with WSSV virions (104 copies/ shrimp) and 30 mg of control siRNA. Positive control shrimp were injected with WSSV only (104 copies/shrimp). For each treatment, a group of 10 individual shrimp were used and gill tissues were collected at 48 h post-inoculation. Three shrimp specimens were selected at random from each treatment and were subjected to qRT-PCR to quantify the mRNA levels of all three Ago1 isoforms and WSSV genome copies.Statistical AnalysisThe numerical data from three independent experiments was analyzed by one-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Statistical significance between treatments was carried out using the Student’s t-test.indicated that the Ago1 transcripts amplified here 23977191 were not generated from genomic DNA (data not shown). Multiple sequence alignments of shrimp Ago 1 isoforms (Ago1A, Ago1B, and Ago1C), Ago1, and Ago2 from other species revealed that the Ago1 sequences of M. japonicus shrimp were more closely related to Ago1 sequences of other animals, including humans, than to other animal Ago2 sequences (Fig. 2). The amino acid sequences of shrimp Ago1A, Ago1B, and Ago1C were almost identical, but differed at their N-terminal regions and PIWI domains (Fig. 1 Fig. 2). An insertion of 27 amino acid residues was found in Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms, but not in the Ago1C isoform and Ago1 homologs of other species (Fig. 1 Fig. 2), indicating that the 27-amino-acid domain might be unique in shrimp. To exclude the possibility that Ago1 isoforms were generated from various copies of the Ago1 gene in the shrimp genome, Southern and northern blot analyses were conducted. Southern blots showed a single band (Fig. 3A), suggesting that there was one copy of Ago1 in the shrimp genome. Northern blot analysis revealed that two bands were hybridized with the Ago1 probe that could detect all the three isoforms of Ago1 (Fig. 3B). Meanwhile, only one band equivalent to the upper band was detected using the Ago1-fragment 2 probe that was unique to Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms, which presumably co-migrate because of similar molecular weights (Fig. 3B). These data indicated that the Ago1 isoforms were transcribed from the same Ago1 gene and might result from alternative splicing of the Ago1 precursor mRNA.Expression Patterns of Ago1 Isoforms in ShrimpTo characterize the expression patterns of Ago1 isoforms in different organs of sh.

Leave a Reply