Imately 5?0 min) was maintained and this was confirmed by temperature monitoring

Imately 5?0 min) was maintained and this was confirmed by temperature monitoring within each well, using a digital thermometer, immediately prior to and after the anisotropy measurements. Experiments were conducted on a minimum of five independent trout plasma membrane samples. Mifepristone (a GR antagonist) had its own AN-3199 custom synthesis effect on membrane order (see Figure S1) and, therefore, was not used as a tool for blocking GR effects in the present study.Preparation of Cortisol-peptide (Cortisol-PEP) ConjugateConjugation of cortisol to form a derivative was carried out as reported by Erlanger et al. [19]. Cortisol-carboxy methyl oxime (Cortisol-CMO (4-pregnen-11b,17,21-triol-3,20-dione3-O-carboxymethyloxime, catalog number Q3888-000) was purchased from Steraloids Inc. (Newport, RI). The peptide conjugated to the CMO is a 15 amino acid sequence of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (N-terminus-SGGEVVVDQPMERLY-C-terminus; Proteomics Core Facility, Washington State University, Pullman, WA). The PEP is conjugated via the serine to the CMO using a mixed anhydride technique [19] 15481974 using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent, tri-N-butylamine, and isobutyl chloroformate. This conjugation procedure produces a product of 1:1 stoichometry of a cortisol molecule to a single PEP sequence. The reaction is added to LH-20 Sephadex column to separate the cortisol-PEP, free cortisol, and free PEP. Based on the absorbance at 280 nm, three peaks are derived from the separation on the column with the first peak as cortisol-PEP. This method of obtaining just the hormone conjugate has been confirmed for E2PEP [20] using Waters QTOF-micro electrospray mass 89 spectometer with the sample introduced by direct infusion (Macromolecular Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO).Liver Plasma MembraneLiver plasma membranes were isolated using sucrose gradient as described previously [12]. The membrane pellet was resuspended in TCD buffer (300 mM sucrose, 10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DDT), 0.5 mM CaCl2, 1X protease inhibitor cocktail, pH 7.5; Sigma) and frozen at 270uC. All steps, including centrifugation, were carried out at 4uC. The enrichment of the membrane fraction was determined as described previously by measuring the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase [13], 59-nucleotidase [14] and lactate dehydrogenase [15]. The six-fold higher Na+/K+ATPase (H: 1.260.1 vs. M: 6.961.1; n = 7?) and thirteen-fold higher 59- nucleotidase (H: 1661.5 vs. M: 178648; n = 7?) activities (U/g protein) in the membrane (M) fraction compared to the initial tissue homogenate (H), confirm membrane enrichment. The ,90 drop in LDH activity (H: 1055640 vs. M: 124614; n = 7?) in the membrane fraction further confirms enriched plasma membranes with negligible cytosolic contamination.Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Plasma membrane surface topography (height changes) and phase (viscoelastic changes) were measured simultaneously using atomic force microscopy (AFM). 12926553 AFM measurements were carried out in a fluid cell (Molecular Imaging) using the Agilent buy Alprenolol Technologies 5500 Scanning Probe Microscope in intermittent contact mode (MAC mode) at 0.7 ln/s as described before [21]. Precise force regulation was obtained in MAC mode by using a magnetically coated cantilever (MacLevers Type II from Agilent Technologies; force constant: 2.8 N/m, tip radius: 7 nm, and height: 10?5 mm) Membrane samples were transferred onto a freshly cleaved piece of mica placed within the liquid cell and equilibrated for.Imately 5?0 min) was maintained and this was confirmed by temperature monitoring within each well, using a digital thermometer, immediately prior to and after the anisotropy measurements. Experiments were conducted on a minimum of five independent trout plasma membrane samples. Mifepristone (a GR antagonist) had its own effect on membrane order (see Figure S1) and, therefore, was not used as a tool for blocking GR effects in the present study.Preparation of Cortisol-peptide (Cortisol-PEP) ConjugateConjugation of cortisol to form a derivative was carried out as reported by Erlanger et al. [19]. Cortisol-carboxy methyl oxime (Cortisol-CMO (4-pregnen-11b,17,21-triol-3,20-dione3-O-carboxymethyloxime, catalog number Q3888-000) was purchased from Steraloids Inc. (Newport, RI). The peptide conjugated to the CMO is a 15 amino acid sequence of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (N-terminus-SGGEVVVDQPMERLY-C-terminus; Proteomics Core Facility, Washington State University, Pullman, WA). The PEP is conjugated via the serine to the CMO using a mixed anhydride technique [19] 15481974 using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent, tri-N-butylamine, and isobutyl chloroformate. This conjugation procedure produces a product of 1:1 stoichometry of a cortisol molecule to a single PEP sequence. The reaction is added to LH-20 Sephadex column to separate the cortisol-PEP, free cortisol, and free PEP. Based on the absorbance at 280 nm, three peaks are derived from the separation on the column with the first peak as cortisol-PEP. This method of obtaining just the hormone conjugate has been confirmed for E2PEP [20] using Waters QTOF-micro electrospray mass 89 spectometer with the sample introduced by direct infusion (Macromolecular Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO).Liver Plasma MembraneLiver plasma membranes were isolated using sucrose gradient as described previously [12]. The membrane pellet was resuspended in TCD buffer (300 mM sucrose, 10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DDT), 0.5 mM CaCl2, 1X protease inhibitor cocktail, pH 7.5; Sigma) and frozen at 270uC. All steps, including centrifugation, were carried out at 4uC. The enrichment of the membrane fraction was determined as described previously by measuring the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase [13], 59-nucleotidase [14] and lactate dehydrogenase [15]. The six-fold higher Na+/K+ATPase (H: 1.260.1 vs. M: 6.961.1; n = 7?) and thirteen-fold higher 59- nucleotidase (H: 1661.5 vs. M: 178648; n = 7?) activities (U/g protein) in the membrane (M) fraction compared to the initial tissue homogenate (H), confirm membrane enrichment. The ,90 drop in LDH activity (H: 1055640 vs. M: 124614; n = 7?) in the membrane fraction further confirms enriched plasma membranes with negligible cytosolic contamination.Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Plasma membrane surface topography (height changes) and phase (viscoelastic changes) were measured simultaneously using atomic force microscopy (AFM). 12926553 AFM measurements were carried out in a fluid cell (Molecular Imaging) using the Agilent Technologies 5500 Scanning Probe Microscope in intermittent contact mode (MAC mode) at 0.7 ln/s as described before [21]. Precise force regulation was obtained in MAC mode by using a magnetically coated cantilever (MacLevers Type II from Agilent Technologies; force constant: 2.8 N/m, tip radius: 7 nm, and height: 10?5 mm) Membrane samples were transferred onto a freshly cleaved piece of mica placed within the liquid cell and equilibrated for.

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