Ble 2. Distribution of triclosan tolerance among S. epidermidis isolates from 1965-

Ble 2. Distribution of triclosan tolerance among S. epidermidis isolates from 1965-66 (old) and 2010-11 (current).Fishers exact testa(Figure 2). It was thereby visualized that all the triclosan-exposed descendants had a variable increase in fabI expression compared to their own parental isolate including the already tolerant isolates that did not change their MIC/MBC further. When comparing the different isolates, it is seen that the parent isolate BD-12 that had a high MIC/MBC (4 mg/l/8 mg/l) and no mutations in fabI or the putative promoter region also had a relatively low mRNA expression of fabI.DiscussionThis study indicates that wild-type S. epidermidis has 12926553 changed their population structure to adapt to the widespread use of triclosan. We now have a triclosan tolerant subpopulation of S. epidermidis, so far identified in Denmark and USA [7,16]. While no Danish isolates from 1965-66 where tolerant, 12.5 of the current isolates studied have decreased triclosan susceptibility with MIC get Deslorelin values that were up to 32 fold higher, than the highest value found in the old isolates. We suggest that this change is caused by the general large-scale use of triclosan in society and to a lesser degree in the healthcare system. We could reproduce this evolution through laboratory experiments exposing triclosan susceptible isolates to increasing concentrations of triclosan. Old, current, antibiotic susceptible, multiresistant and isolates with different ST types could be mutated to increased triclosan MICs. Interestingly it was not possible to adapt S. epidermidis isolates to a higher MIC than 4 mg/l and a MBC of 8 mg/l that correlated with the maximum values found in the clinical isolates. A number of studies have examined triclosan tolerance and its mechanisms in S. aureus [7,16,17,24?26,28?2]. Only two other studies have Thiazole Orange site reported the distribution of triclosan MICs for S. epidermidis [7,16]. In the first study, households were randomized to using or not using liquid soaps containing 0.2 triclosan (2000 mg/l). After one year triclosan 23727046 MIC values remained in the range #0.0312? mg/l with no decrease in triclosan susceptibility. The other study investigated clinical S. epidermidis collected between 2001 and 2002 from all over USA [16]. They found a triclosan MIC range of #0.03?8 mg/l. This is similar to what we have found in the current S.N Old Current Current, cefoxitin S Current, cefoxitin R 34 64 24MIC 0.25 mg/l 0 (0 ) 8 (12.5 ) 2 (8.3 ) 6 (15 )p#0.048 Not significant p#0.MIC ,0.25 mg/l is defined as susceptible and MIC 0.25 mg/l is defined as tolerant. a Old isolates versus current isolates. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062197.tTriclosan Resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidisTable 3. Triclosan and antibiotic susceptibility of parental strains from 1965-66 (65?3 and 66?1) and from 2010?1 (BD-62, Van1, BD-12 and BD-24) and their triclosan laboratory exposed descendents.Isolate ID (ST) 65-13 (410) 65-13a 65-13b 65-13Ka 65-13Kb 66-1 (190) 66-1a 66-1b 66-1Ka 66-1Kb BD-62 (327) BD-62a BD-62b BD-62Ka BD-62Kb Van-1 (2) Van-1a Van-1b Van-1Ka Van-1Kb BD-12 (88) BD-12a BD-12b BD-12Ka BD-12Kb BD-24 (ND) BD-24a BD-24b BD-24Ka BD-24KbMIC_0 0.0625 2 2 0.0313 0.0313 0.125 4 4 0.0625 0.0625 0.0313 4 4 0.0313 0.0313 0.0625 4 4 0.0313 0.0313 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4MBC_0 0.25 8 8 0.125 0.25 4 8 8 4 4 1 4 4 1 1 1 8MIC_MBC_PEN RFOX S S S SFA S S S SGEN S S S SERY S S S SCLIN S S S SRIF S S S SLIN S S S SNOF S S S S0.R R RR 4 8 R R RS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS.Ble 2. Distribution of triclosan tolerance among S. epidermidis isolates from 1965-66 (old) and 2010-11 (current).Fishers exact testa(Figure 2). It was thereby visualized that all the triclosan-exposed descendants had a variable increase in fabI expression compared to their own parental isolate including the already tolerant isolates that did not change their MIC/MBC further. When comparing the different isolates, it is seen that the parent isolate BD-12 that had a high MIC/MBC (4 mg/l/8 mg/l) and no mutations in fabI or the putative promoter region also had a relatively low mRNA expression of fabI.DiscussionThis study indicates that wild-type S. epidermidis has 12926553 changed their population structure to adapt to the widespread use of triclosan. We now have a triclosan tolerant subpopulation of S. epidermidis, so far identified in Denmark and USA [7,16]. While no Danish isolates from 1965-66 where tolerant, 12.5 of the current isolates studied have decreased triclosan susceptibility with MIC values that were up to 32 fold higher, than the highest value found in the old isolates. We suggest that this change is caused by the general large-scale use of triclosan in society and to a lesser degree in the healthcare system. We could reproduce this evolution through laboratory experiments exposing triclosan susceptible isolates to increasing concentrations of triclosan. Old, current, antibiotic susceptible, multiresistant and isolates with different ST types could be mutated to increased triclosan MICs. Interestingly it was not possible to adapt S. epidermidis isolates to a higher MIC than 4 mg/l and a MBC of 8 mg/l that correlated with the maximum values found in the clinical isolates. A number of studies have examined triclosan tolerance and its mechanisms in S. aureus [7,16,17,24?26,28?2]. Only two other studies have reported the distribution of triclosan MICs for S. epidermidis [7,16]. In the first study, households were randomized to using or not using liquid soaps containing 0.2 triclosan (2000 mg/l). After one year triclosan 23727046 MIC values remained in the range #0.0312? mg/l with no decrease in triclosan susceptibility. The other study investigated clinical S. epidermidis collected between 2001 and 2002 from all over USA [16]. They found a triclosan MIC range of #0.03?8 mg/l. This is similar to what we have found in the current S.N Old Current Current, cefoxitin S Current, cefoxitin R 34 64 24MIC 0.25 mg/l 0 (0 ) 8 (12.5 ) 2 (8.3 ) 6 (15 )p#0.048 Not significant p#0.MIC ,0.25 mg/l is defined as susceptible and MIC 0.25 mg/l is defined as tolerant. a Old isolates versus current isolates. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062197.tTriclosan Resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidisTable 3. Triclosan and antibiotic susceptibility of parental strains from 1965-66 (65?3 and 66?1) and from 2010?1 (BD-62, Van1, BD-12 and BD-24) and their triclosan laboratory exposed descendents.Isolate ID (ST) 65-13 (410) 65-13a 65-13b 65-13Ka 65-13Kb 66-1 (190) 66-1a 66-1b 66-1Ka 66-1Kb BD-62 (327) BD-62a BD-62b BD-62Ka BD-62Kb Van-1 (2) Van-1a Van-1b Van-1Ka Van-1Kb BD-12 (88) BD-12a BD-12b BD-12Ka BD-12Kb BD-24 (ND) BD-24a BD-24b BD-24Ka BD-24KbMIC_0 0.0625 2 2 0.0313 0.0313 0.125 4 4 0.0625 0.0625 0.0313 4 4 0.0313 0.0313 0.0625 4 4 0.0313 0.0313 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4MBC_0 0.25 8 8 0.125 0.25 4 8 8 4 4 1 4 4 1 1 1 8MIC_MBC_PEN RFOX S S S SFA S S S SGEN S S S SERY S S S SCLIN S S S SRIF S S S SLIN S S S SNOF S S S S0.R R RR 4 8 R R RS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS S S SS.

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