And 2.1 g/L, respectively, after methanol induced for 110 h. Fig. 5 shows

And 2.1 g/L, respectively, after methanol induced for 110 h. Fig. 5 shows that under the conditions of pH 6.0, Temp = 27.0uC, DO = 30 ?8 , rotation rate = 610 rpm and the late-stage induction with 0.5 methanol for 80 h, the fresh cell weight reached approximately 270.0 g/L, and the lipase CB5083 supplier activity and protein content in broth were 6,100 U/mL and 3.0 g/L, respectively. CALB was one of the most widely used and studied enzymes in the world. To improve the expression level of CALB gene and facilitate its biotechnical application, researchers have expressed itFigure 4. Lipase production capacity of the recombinants checked by flask fermentation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053939.gHigh-level Expression of CALB by de novo DesigningFigure 5. Lipase production of recombinant pPIC9KaM-CalBM in 5-L fermentor. (A). Fermentation condition; (B). Lipase production capacity. The fermentation parameters were maintained as follows: temperature (27.0uC), the pH (6.0) was sustained by ammonia titration, and the dissolved oxygen (DO, .30 ) was lined with agitation (rpm, 550?50). For the inducible expression of lipase, methanol was added into the broth at a final concentration of 0.5 . Short dash line indicated the time point for methanol induction. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053939.gin a series of hosts. Early in 2006, Blank and co-workers have realized the functional expression of CALB gene in periplasm of E. coli [13]. While the expression level and activity of CALB in E. coli were still unsatisfied. The works conducted by Larsen et al. (2008), Jung and Park (2008) showed that the expression level just reached micro-gram level even after codon-optimization [10,11]. The successful expression of CALB gene happened in Pichia. In 2001, Rotticci-Mulder et al. (2001) have fusion-expressed CALB gene with CBD domain of cellulase, and the recombinant proteins (CBD-CALB) were secreted into the culture medium at the level of 25 mg/L [36]. Jahic and co-worker (2002, 2003) have optimized the fermentation condition to improve the biomass (cell dry weight) to the level of 160 g/L by modeling of growth and energy metabolism. While due to the serious proteolysis, the protein content of CBD-CALB was just 1.2 g/L [34]. Later, they improved the expression level to 1.5 g/L in the culture supernatant by combining the optimal pH and the low temperature [35]. In our work, after methanol induction for 80 h, the activity and protein content of codon-optimized CALB reached 6,100 U/mL and 3.0 g/L in the culture supernatant. This mainly due to the codon-optimization of CALB which efficiently improved the codon usage frequency and the expression level, and also the fermentation parameter optimization may also have deduced the degradation and proteolysis of enzyme in the broth.produce sufficient amounts of biological material for MedChemExpress Naringin molecular characterization and biotechnological application. In addition, the Pichia transformants carrying the codon-optimized gene had great potential for the industrial-scale production of CALB lipase.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Codon usage frequency of native (A) and codonoptimized (B) a-factor in Pichia. (TIF) Figure S2 Codon usage frequency of native (A) and codonoptimized (B) CALB gene in Pichia. (TIF) Figure S3 Secondary structure of the first 200 bp of mature CALB mRNA generated by the software RNAfolder. (A) Native CALB mRNA with the MFE is 270.0 kcal/ mol and (B) Codon-optimized CALB mRNA with the MFE is 263.3 kcal/mol. (TIF) Table S1 Oligonucloe.And 2.1 g/L, respectively, after methanol induced for 110 h. Fig. 5 shows that under the conditions of pH 6.0, Temp = 27.0uC, DO = 30 ?8 , rotation rate = 610 rpm and the late-stage induction with 0.5 methanol for 80 h, the fresh cell weight reached approximately 270.0 g/L, and the lipase activity and protein content in broth were 6,100 U/mL and 3.0 g/L, respectively. CALB was one of the most widely used and studied enzymes in the world. To improve the expression level of CALB gene and facilitate its biotechnical application, researchers have expressed itFigure 4. Lipase production capacity of the recombinants checked by flask fermentation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053939.gHigh-level Expression of CALB by de novo DesigningFigure 5. Lipase production of recombinant pPIC9KaM-CalBM in 5-L fermentor. (A). Fermentation condition; (B). Lipase production capacity. The fermentation parameters were maintained as follows: temperature (27.0uC), the pH (6.0) was sustained by ammonia titration, and the dissolved oxygen (DO, .30 ) was lined with agitation (rpm, 550?50). For the inducible expression of lipase, methanol was added into the broth at a final concentration of 0.5 . Short dash line indicated the time point for methanol induction. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053939.gin a series of hosts. Early in 2006, Blank and co-workers have realized the functional expression of CALB gene in periplasm of E. coli [13]. While the expression level and activity of CALB in E. coli were still unsatisfied. The works conducted by Larsen et al. (2008), Jung and Park (2008) showed that the expression level just reached micro-gram level even after codon-optimization [10,11]. The successful expression of CALB gene happened in Pichia. In 2001, Rotticci-Mulder et al. (2001) have fusion-expressed CALB gene with CBD domain of cellulase, and the recombinant proteins (CBD-CALB) were secreted into the culture medium at the level of 25 mg/L [36]. Jahic and co-worker (2002, 2003) have optimized the fermentation condition to improve the biomass (cell dry weight) to the level of 160 g/L by modeling of growth and energy metabolism. While due to the serious proteolysis, the protein content of CBD-CALB was just 1.2 g/L [34]. Later, they improved the expression level to 1.5 g/L in the culture supernatant by combining the optimal pH and the low temperature [35]. In our work, after methanol induction for 80 h, the activity and protein content of codon-optimized CALB reached 6,100 U/mL and 3.0 g/L in the culture supernatant. This mainly due to the codon-optimization of CALB which efficiently improved the codon usage frequency and the expression level, and also the fermentation parameter optimization may also have deduced the degradation and proteolysis of enzyme in the broth.produce sufficient amounts of biological material for molecular characterization and biotechnological application. In addition, the Pichia transformants carrying the codon-optimized gene had great potential for the industrial-scale production of CALB lipase.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Codon usage frequency of native (A) and codonoptimized (B) a-factor in Pichia. (TIF) Figure S2 Codon usage frequency of native (A) and codonoptimized (B) CALB gene in Pichia. (TIF) Figure S3 Secondary structure of the first 200 bp of mature CALB mRNA generated by the software RNAfolder. (A) Native CALB mRNA with the MFE is 270.0 kcal/ mol and (B) Codon-optimized CALB mRNA with the MFE is 263.3 kcal/mol. (TIF) Table S1 Oligonucloe.

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