Nd depth (blue dotted line); d = distance between two sections (black

Nd depth (blue dotted line); d = distance between two sections (black dotted line). Note that in case of closed wound, le = l; in case of non-epithelialized Alprenolol web wounds (this example), le,l. In this example, every 40 sections were analyzed (see numbers on the top right corner of each picture), so d = 280 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.ginjected) appeared about the same size, yet the wounds treated with TGF-? neutralizing antibody (NAB) were slightly larger (Figure 3 a ). At seven days, control wounds (Figure 3 e, f) appeared identical to wounds injected with TGF-? (Figure 3 g). However, wounds treated with NAB alone were redder and larger than the other three groups (Figure 3 h). No difference was noticeable 11 days post-wounding, time when all the wounds were closed (Figure 3 i ). To confirm our macroscopic phenotype, we performed histological analysis of these same wounds. Figure 4 shows the histological features of the middle of the wound of each group atthe different time points. All wounds were open four days postwounding (Figure 4 a ). At seven days, wounds were closed in controls (IgG control not shown) and TGF-? -injected wounds, while epithelialization was incomplete in NAB-injected wounds (Figure 4 e ). All of the wounds were covered by an epithelium 11 days post-wounding (Figure 4 i ). Quantification of the percentage of closure was performed using morphometric analysis of the entire wound, and not data from the middle of the wound only (Figure 5). As described in detail in the method section, wound area and epidermal area were calculated for each wound (Figure 5 a, b). The percentage of closure wasFigure 2. Tgf?-Cre induced recombination in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis during wound healing. Six-mm excisional punch wounds sections were performed in Tgfb3-Cre;R26R-LacZ (a , f, g) or wildtype animals (e) and harvested 4 (a, d), 7 (b, e) and 11 (c) days postwounding. Tissue sections were stained for X-gal (a , e ) or incubated in PBS control (d). Black arrow in (a) indicates the leading edge of the migrating keratinocytes. Note the presence of X-gal staining in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle (f) and in the subrabasal layer of the epidermis (g). Scale bar (a ) = 100 mm; scale 1081537 bar (f, g) = 50 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.gTGFB3 and Wound HealingFigure 3. Macroscopic photomicrographs of excisional wounds. Six-mm excisional punch wounds were performed on the back of wild type mice. One day later, wounds were treated with saline (a, e, i), TGF-? and neutralizing antibody (NAB) against TGF-? (b, f, j), TGF-? (c, g, k), and NAB (d, h, l). Wounds were harvested 4 days (a ), 7 days (e ) and 11 days (i ) post-wounding. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.gidentified as the ratio of the total epidermal area over the wound area (Figure 5 c). Naringin web Already at four days post-wounding, the NABtreated wounds had the lowest percentage of closure, yet the datawas not significant. Morphometric measurements of seven-day wounds confirmed the macroscopic observations and indicated that NAB-treated wounds were 75 closed while all the otherFigure 4. Histological features of excisional wounds. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the section in the middle of the wound is shown as representative of each treatment group (saline, a, e, i; TGF-?+NAB, b, f, j; TGF-?, c, g, k; NAB, d, h, l) and time points (4 days post-wounding, a ; 7 days post-wounding, e ; 11 days post-wounding, i ). Only the middle of the wound of each section is shown.Nd depth (blue dotted line); d = distance between two sections (black dotted line). Note that in case of closed wound, le = l; in case of non-epithelialized wounds (this example), le,l. In this example, every 40 sections were analyzed (see numbers on the top right corner of each picture), so d = 280 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.ginjected) appeared about the same size, yet the wounds treated with TGF-? neutralizing antibody (NAB) were slightly larger (Figure 3 a ). At seven days, control wounds (Figure 3 e, f) appeared identical to wounds injected with TGF-? (Figure 3 g). However, wounds treated with NAB alone were redder and larger than the other three groups (Figure 3 h). No difference was noticeable 11 days post-wounding, time when all the wounds were closed (Figure 3 i ). To confirm our macroscopic phenotype, we performed histological analysis of these same wounds. Figure 4 shows the histological features of the middle of the wound of each group atthe different time points. All wounds were open four days postwounding (Figure 4 a ). At seven days, wounds were closed in controls (IgG control not shown) and TGF-? -injected wounds, while epithelialization was incomplete in NAB-injected wounds (Figure 4 e ). All of the wounds were covered by an epithelium 11 days post-wounding (Figure 4 i ). Quantification of the percentage of closure was performed using morphometric analysis of the entire wound, and not data from the middle of the wound only (Figure 5). As described in detail in the method section, wound area and epidermal area were calculated for each wound (Figure 5 a, b). The percentage of closure wasFigure 2. Tgf?-Cre induced recombination in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis during wound healing. Six-mm excisional punch wounds sections were performed in Tgfb3-Cre;R26R-LacZ (a , f, g) or wildtype animals (e) and harvested 4 (a, d), 7 (b, e) and 11 (c) days postwounding. Tissue sections were stained for X-gal (a , e ) or incubated in PBS control (d). Black arrow in (a) indicates the leading edge of the migrating keratinocytes. Note the presence of X-gal staining in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle (f) and in the subrabasal layer of the epidermis (g). Scale bar (a ) = 100 mm; scale 1081537 bar (f, g) = 50 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.gTGFB3 and Wound HealingFigure 3. Macroscopic photomicrographs of excisional wounds. Six-mm excisional punch wounds were performed on the back of wild type mice. One day later, wounds were treated with saline (a, e, i), TGF-? and neutralizing antibody (NAB) against TGF-? (b, f, j), TGF-? (c, g, k), and NAB (d, h, l). Wounds were harvested 4 days (a ), 7 days (e ) and 11 days (i ) post-wounding. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048040.gidentified as the ratio of the total epidermal area over the wound area (Figure 5 c). Already at four days post-wounding, the NABtreated wounds had the lowest percentage of closure, yet the datawas not significant. Morphometric measurements of seven-day wounds confirmed the macroscopic observations and indicated that NAB-treated wounds were 75 closed while all the otherFigure 4. Histological features of excisional wounds. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the section in the middle of the wound is shown as representative of each treatment group (saline, a, e, i; TGF-?+NAB, b, f, j; TGF-?, c, g, k; NAB, d, h, l) and time points (4 days post-wounding, a ; 7 days post-wounding, e ; 11 days post-wounding, i ). Only the middle of the wound of each section is shown.

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