Of the translated RdRP sequence of the murine astrovirus USA/BSRI

Of the translated RdRP sequence of the murine Ls as evident from Annexin-V immunofluorescence staining studies. The potential of astrovirus USA/BSRI/NSG/1 and representatives of the Astroviridae using the maximum likelihood method. C) Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRP nucleotide sequence of the murine astrovirus in laboratory mice from the USA and Japan, along with murine astrovirus in wild and laboratory mice from the Genbank database. Sequences from wild mice were labeled with squares;Murine Astrovirus in Laboratory Micelaboratory mice from USA with circles; laboratory mice from Japan with triangles; immunocompetent mice were labeled black and immunodeficient mice were labeled white. D) Comparison of nucleotide sequences of Title Loaded From File MuAstV in this study with published sequences in GenBank. For each sequence, the first row denotes nucleotides in which discrepancies were highlighted in black. The second row denotes amino acids in which discrepancies were highlighted in color with a note ?consensus amino acid was followed by the mutated amino acid and the position corresponded to the translated ORF1b RdRP gene. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066937.gtested but none of the immunocompetent mice. A likely explanation is that both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice are susceptible to MuAstV, but adaptive immunity is required to clear the virus [24]. No inflammation was detected in the MuAstV-positive immunodeficient NSG mice by histologic evaluation; however, the immunodeficiency of the mice may actually mask the inflammatory response to some degree. In asymptomatic mice with or without immunity, Yokoyama et al [24] detected high viral load 18204824 (up to 109 genome copies per fecal pellet). The same study detected MuAstV in liver and kidney tissues of immunocompromised mice, but not in those internal tissues of immunocompetent mice, suggesting MuAstV infects immune-compromised mice systemically. Comparatively, human astroviruses are generally associated with gastroenteritic symptoms in patients with a weakened immune system [15,40]. For instance, HIV-positive individuals, young children, and the elderly are especially sensitive to enteric astrovirus infection [26,40,41]. Young children infected with human astrovirus are typically able to clear the virus within two weeks [42]. We hypothesize that the virus preferentially infects young mice, perhaps while still in the nest, but 23148522 that infection is then cleared only in mice with functional immune systems. MuAstV can clearly infect both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice, and its prevalence is likely to be determined by a number of factors: 1) whether the mice were provided by a breeder that has a history of MuAstV; 2) whether the mice were held in a facility with other MuAstV positive mice; and 3) whether the mice can clear the virus with a functional immune system, and have enough time to do so (by aging). Despite the small sample size, all immunodeficient mice in BSRI were MuAstV positive, possibly because founder mice arrived infected from the US breeder JAX. On the contrary, all Japanese immunodeficient mice tested negative for MuAstV, in which the two breeders were MuAstV-free.MuAstV strains in laboratory mice were all closely related (Fig. 1), including mice maintained in the USA and Japan. Synonymous mutations occurred in all laboratory mice (Fig. 1D), and some mutations were identical in mice of the same strain in the same university. Certain non-synonymous mutations (347D.N) were found in different strains in different facilities possibly reflecting convergent evolution. We do.Of the translated RdRP sequence of the murine astrovirus USA/BSRI/NSG/1 and representatives of the Astroviridae using the maximum likelihood method. C) Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRP nucleotide sequence of the murine astrovirus in laboratory mice from the USA and Japan, along with murine astrovirus in wild and laboratory mice from the Genbank database. Sequences from wild mice were labeled with squares;Murine Astrovirus in Laboratory Micelaboratory mice from USA with circles; laboratory mice from Japan with triangles; immunocompetent mice were labeled black and immunodeficient mice were labeled white. D) Comparison of nucleotide sequences of MuAstV in this study with published sequences in GenBank. For each sequence, the first row denotes nucleotides in which discrepancies were highlighted in black. The second row denotes amino acids in which discrepancies were highlighted in color with a note ?consensus amino acid was followed by the mutated amino acid and the position corresponded to the translated ORF1b RdRP gene. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066937.gtested but none of the immunocompetent mice. A likely explanation is that both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice are susceptible to MuAstV, but adaptive immunity is required to clear the virus [24]. No inflammation was detected in the MuAstV-positive immunodeficient NSG mice by histologic evaluation; however, the immunodeficiency of the mice may actually mask the inflammatory response to some degree. In asymptomatic mice with or without immunity, Yokoyama et al [24] detected high viral load 18204824 (up to 109 genome copies per fecal pellet). The same study detected MuAstV in liver and kidney tissues of immunocompromised mice, but not in those internal tissues of immunocompetent mice, suggesting MuAstV infects immune-compromised mice systemically. Comparatively, human astroviruses are generally associated with gastroenteritic symptoms in patients with a weakened immune system [15,40]. For instance, HIV-positive individuals, young children, and the elderly are especially sensitive to enteric astrovirus infection [26,40,41]. Young children infected with human astrovirus are typically able to clear the virus within two weeks [42]. We hypothesize that the virus preferentially infects young mice, perhaps while still in the nest, but 23148522 that infection is then cleared only in mice with functional immune systems. MuAstV can clearly infect both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice, and its prevalence is likely to be determined by a number of factors: 1) whether the mice were provided by a breeder that has a history of MuAstV; 2) whether the mice were held in a facility with other MuAstV positive mice; and 3) whether the mice can clear the virus with a functional immune system, and have enough time to do so (by aging). Despite the small sample size, all immunodeficient mice in BSRI were MuAstV positive, possibly because founder mice arrived infected from the US breeder JAX. On the contrary, all Japanese immunodeficient mice tested negative for MuAstV, in which the two breeders were MuAstV-free.MuAstV strains in laboratory mice were all closely related (Fig. 1), including mice maintained in the USA and Japan. Synonymous mutations occurred in all laboratory mice (Fig. 1D), and some mutations were identical in mice of the same strain in the same university. Certain non-synonymous mutations (347D.N) were found in different strains in different facilities possibly reflecting convergent evolution. We do.

Leave a Reply