Included on the array.80 7137 58 28 5Analysis of Tissue CKA and HK2 ExpressionImmunohistochemical

Included on the array.80 7137 58 28 5Analysis of Tissue CKA and HK2 ExpressionImmunohistochemical analysis was performed using an automated staining platform (Dako, Inc., Carpinteria, CA, USA). Protein expression of CKA was evaluated using a commercial antibody (choline kinase alpha rabbit polyclonal antibody, Sigma) in accordance with the manufacturer’s protocol and an antibody dilution to 1:140. HK2 was evaluated using a commercial antibody (hexokinase II rabbit monoclonal antibody, Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA). The manufacturer’s protocol was followed with antibody dilution adjusted to 1:100. Detection was conducted using a biotinylated secondary antirabbit IgG and avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase with diaminiobenzidine as substrate (Vectastain Elite ABC Kit, Burlingame, CA, USA).110 32 1 1446 28Hexokinase and Choline Kinase in Liver CancerKaplan-Meier (K-M) method and compared between groups on the basis of the log-rank test. Adjusted and unadusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. A p-value of ,0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical tests were performed using JMP Pro 9.0.2 64-bit Edition (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).respectively. Tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm was also significantly associated with increased overall survival (Long-rank p,0.001) with median survival times of 86 months and 26 months in patients with tumors , = 5 cm and .5 cm, respectively. Patient age and tumor grade were not significantly associated with different survival patterns.Survival Associated with Tumor CKA and HK2 Expression Results Patient characteristicsImmunohistochemical analysis was successfully completed on all 157 tumor specimens. Patient demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Tumor CKA expression was significantly associated with increased mortality (Log-rank p = 0.03), with a median survival time of 28 months for 55 patients with CKA-positive tumors compared to 59 months for 102 patients with CKA-negative tumors (Figure 2A). The unadjusted HR corresponding to the detection of tumor CKA expression was 1.59 (95 CI 1.04?2.41). A greater effect on survival was associated with moderate to high Asiaticoside A chemical information intensity tumor staining for CKA (HR 4.28, 95 CI 2.29?.44). Tumor HK2 expression was also associated with increased mortality (p = 0.003), with a median survival time of 28 months for 71 patients with HK2-positive tumors compared to 72 months for 86 patients with order 117793 HK2-negative tumors (Figure 2B). The unadjusted HR corresponding to the detection of tumor HK2 expression was 1.86 (95 CI 1.23?.83). Moderate to high intensity tumor staining for HK2 was also positively associated with mortality (HR 2.19, 95 CI 1.24?.63).Immunohistochemical ResultsAntibody staining for CKA was evident in 55 (35 ) tumor specimens with moderate to high staining intensity in 15 (10 ) of the samples. Immunohistochemical staining was localized to the cytoplasm in 36/55 of the CKA-positive tumor specimens, and to a combination of cytoplasm and nucleus in the remainder. Representative tissue staining patterns for anti-CKA antibody are shown in Figure 1. Tests of association between CKA staining and clinicopathological variables are summarized in Table 2. Notable was a borderline significant difference in tumor CKA expression across cancer stage. Antibody staining for HK2 was evident in 71 (45 ) tumor specim.Included on the array.80 7137 58 28 5Analysis of Tissue CKA and HK2 ExpressionImmunohistochemical analysis was performed using an automated staining platform (Dako, Inc., Carpinteria, CA, USA). Protein expression of CKA was evaluated using a commercial antibody (choline kinase alpha rabbit polyclonal antibody, Sigma) in accordance with the manufacturer’s protocol and an antibody dilution to 1:140. HK2 was evaluated using a commercial antibody (hexokinase II rabbit monoclonal antibody, Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA). The manufacturer’s protocol was followed with antibody dilution adjusted to 1:100. Detection was conducted using a biotinylated secondary antirabbit IgG and avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase with diaminiobenzidine as substrate (Vectastain Elite ABC Kit, Burlingame, CA, USA).110 32 1 1446 28Hexokinase and Choline Kinase in Liver CancerKaplan-Meier (K-M) method and compared between groups on the basis of the log-rank test. Adjusted and unadusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. A p-value of ,0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical tests were performed using JMP Pro 9.0.2 64-bit Edition (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).respectively. Tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm was also significantly associated with increased overall survival (Long-rank p,0.001) with median survival times of 86 months and 26 months in patients with tumors , = 5 cm and .5 cm, respectively. Patient age and tumor grade were not significantly associated with different survival patterns.Survival Associated with Tumor CKA and HK2 Expression Results Patient characteristicsImmunohistochemical analysis was successfully completed on all 157 tumor specimens. Patient demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Tumor CKA expression was significantly associated with increased mortality (Log-rank p = 0.03), with a median survival time of 28 months for 55 patients with CKA-positive tumors compared to 59 months for 102 patients with CKA-negative tumors (Figure 2A). The unadjusted HR corresponding to the detection of tumor CKA expression was 1.59 (95 CI 1.04?2.41). A greater effect on survival was associated with moderate to high intensity tumor staining for CKA (HR 4.28, 95 CI 2.29?.44). Tumor HK2 expression was also associated with increased mortality (p = 0.003), with a median survival time of 28 months for 71 patients with HK2-positive tumors compared to 72 months for 86 patients with HK2-negative tumors (Figure 2B). The unadjusted HR corresponding to the detection of tumor HK2 expression was 1.86 (95 CI 1.23?.83). Moderate to high intensity tumor staining for HK2 was also positively associated with mortality (HR 2.19, 95 CI 1.24?.63).Immunohistochemical ResultsAntibody staining for CKA was evident in 55 (35 ) tumor specimens with moderate to high staining intensity in 15 (10 ) of the samples. Immunohistochemical staining was localized to the cytoplasm in 36/55 of the CKA-positive tumor specimens, and to a combination of cytoplasm and nucleus in the remainder. Representative tissue staining patterns for anti-CKA antibody are shown in Figure 1. Tests of association between CKA staining and clinicopathological variables are summarized in Table 2. Notable was a borderline significant difference in tumor CKA expression across cancer stage. Antibody staining for HK2 was evident in 71 (45 ) tumor specim.

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