Al markers of apoptosis have been found, that can be measured

Al markers of apoptosis have been found, that can be measured from peripheral blood, such as Fas, TRAIL, and tumor necrosis factor ?a. However, the question regarding which provides the greatest predictive power and which would be the best for use in clinical practice or interventional studies remains unanswered. The only way forward is through assessments done using large observational studies. Our study was a stepFigure 3. Kaplan ?Meier survival curves event rate in patients grouped according to calculated optimal cut-off value of TRAIL. Patients with TRAIL concentrations up to 44.6 ng/mL are shown as a solid curve, patients with TRAIL concentrations higher than 44.6 ng/mL are shown as a dotted curve. P,0.001 (log rank test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053860.gLY-2409021 prognosis in ACS Patients by Apoptotic Moleculestoward answering the question. If confirmed, prospective interventional studies would be needed to determine if TRAIL-guided treatment can improve the prognosis of patients following MI. Experimental data have shown that programmed cell death after myocardial injury contributes in a major way to ventricular remodelling and the development of heart failure. Rapid reperfusion by PCI or thrombolysis helps to minimize acute ischemic injury. However, apoptosis seems to have stronger association with reperfusion than hypoxia [28]. Fortunately, there appears to be a therapeutic window for interrupting excessive apoptosis, which can be days or weeks after the acute ischemic insult [29]. The finding of reliable apoptosis biomarkers or methods to positively 47931-85-1 site affect the process of left ventricular remodeling after MI (e.g. by new antiapoptotic drugs) could serve to improve patient prognoses. Despite the ambiguity of TRAIL at the molecular level, in clinical practice, lower concentrations have been found to be associated with a poor prognosis in several recently published trials. Several reports have indicated that serum creatinine is also a negative prognostic indicator for MI patients [30]. Our findings are in agreement with them. Cardiac troponins are known prognostic factors associated with poor prognoses in patients with ACS [4]. Higher 23727046 concentrations of troponin I or T are associated with higher mortality in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI [31,32]. Our findings are in complete agreement with these findings. Importantly, the concentration of the apoptotic molecule TRAIL correlated inversely with the concentration of troponinand positively with the LV EF in our patients. Thus, even though LV remodeling, after an MI, can take weeks or months, pathologically low concentrations seem to be present from the first day following MI. Therefore, low concentrations of TRAIL could present a reduced inhibition power against apoptosis. Moreover, low concentrations of TRAIL remained a predictor of poor outomes, independent of troponin concetrations.Study 15755315 LimitationOne limitation of our study was related to sample size. Additionally, 9 of patients were lost during follow-up, which could have influenced our results. The completion of presented data was 98 . The concentrations of apoptotic molecules were measured only once; additional samples would have been useful and could have provided a better understanding the role of these molecules in the development of heart failure.AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank Dr. Maly for assistance with the statistical elements of the project and Ing. Plicka for ELISA analysis.Author ContributionsConceived and designed th.Al markers of apoptosis have been found, that can be measured from peripheral blood, such as Fas, TRAIL, and tumor necrosis factor ?a. However, the question regarding which provides the greatest predictive power and which would be the best for use in clinical practice or interventional studies remains unanswered. The only way forward is through assessments done using large observational studies. Our study was a stepFigure 3. Kaplan ?Meier survival curves event rate in patients grouped according to calculated optimal cut-off value of TRAIL. Patients with TRAIL concentrations up to 44.6 ng/mL are shown as a solid curve, patients with TRAIL concentrations higher than 44.6 ng/mL are shown as a dotted curve. P,0.001 (log rank test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053860.gPrognosis in ACS Patients by Apoptotic Moleculestoward answering the question. If confirmed, prospective interventional studies would be needed to determine if TRAIL-guided treatment can improve the prognosis of patients following MI. Experimental data have shown that programmed cell death after myocardial injury contributes in a major way to ventricular remodelling and the development of heart failure. Rapid reperfusion by PCI or thrombolysis helps to minimize acute ischemic injury. However, apoptosis seems to have stronger association with reperfusion than hypoxia [28]. Fortunately, there appears to be a therapeutic window for interrupting excessive apoptosis, which can be days or weeks after the acute ischemic insult [29]. The finding of reliable apoptosis biomarkers or methods to positively affect the process of left ventricular remodeling after MI (e.g. by new antiapoptotic drugs) could serve to improve patient prognoses. Despite the ambiguity of TRAIL at the molecular level, in clinical practice, lower concentrations have been found to be associated with a poor prognosis in several recently published trials. Several reports have indicated that serum creatinine is also a negative prognostic indicator for MI patients [30]. Our findings are in agreement with them. Cardiac troponins are known prognostic factors associated with poor prognoses in patients with ACS [4]. Higher 23727046 concentrations of troponin I or T are associated with higher mortality in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI [31,32]. Our findings are in complete agreement with these findings. Importantly, the concentration of the apoptotic molecule TRAIL correlated inversely with the concentration of troponinand positively with the LV EF in our patients. Thus, even though LV remodeling, after an MI, can take weeks or months, pathologically low concentrations seem to be present from the first day following MI. Therefore, low concentrations of TRAIL could present a reduced inhibition power against apoptosis. Moreover, low concentrations of TRAIL remained a predictor of poor outomes, independent of troponin concetrations.Study 15755315 LimitationOne limitation of our study was related to sample size. Additionally, 9 of patients were lost during follow-up, which could have influenced our results. The completion of presented data was 98 . The concentrations of apoptotic molecules were measured only once; additional samples would have been useful and could have provided a better understanding the role of these molecules in the development of heart failure.AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank Dr. Maly for assistance with the statistical elements of the project and Ing. Plicka for ELISA analysis.Author ContributionsConceived and designed th.

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