Rom at least 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gTherapeutic Efficacy of

Rom at least 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDFigure 2. Blockade of AP-1 by curcumin reduces mortality from acute GVHD. (A) C57BL/6 (B6) splenocytes (16107 cells) were incubated with 10 mM curcumin or control vehicle (DMSO) for 1 h at 37uC before adoptive transfer into lethally irradiated (800 cGy) BALB/c (recipient) mice. Recipients also received 56106 total bone marrow cells from B6 mice and were monitored for weight loss, clinical signs of acute GVHD and recipients survival. Combined data from two independent experiments (n = 10 per group) are shown. (B) The left panels are representative tissue sections of liver, skin, colon and lung after transplantation of control (DMSO) or curcumin-treated (n = 6) splenocytes. Histology that are shown is representative of two independent experiments. This section was stained with H E (original magnification, 6200). Right panels are average score of liver, skin, colon and lung of each group. Tissues were collected on day 14 after transplantation. Results are shown as mean 6 SEM of 6 mice. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gdid not affect absolute Title Loaded From File number of T cell subsets in recipient mice (Fig. S3). Conclusively, the attenuated severity of acute GVHD following transplantation with curcumin-treated splenocytes may result from the restoring balance between Th1, andTreg differentiation, not through the alteration of absolute number of immune cells such as T cells, HSC, DC, and NK cells.Figure 3. Reduced expression of c-Fos and c-Jun, components of AP-1, in skin and intestine from curcumin-treated GVHD animals. Representative examples of c-Fos (A) and c-Jun (B) immunohistochemical staining in skin and intestine tissue from GVHD mice. Positive immunoreactivity appears as a brown color and is counterstained with blue or green. Original magnification, 6400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDFigure 4. Analysis of CD4+ T helper cells in curcumin-treated GVHD mice. (A) C57BL/6 (B6) splenocytes (16107 cells) were incubated with 10 mM curcumin or control vehicle (DMSO) for 1 h at 37uC before adoptive transfer into lethally irradiated (800 cGy) BALB/c mice. Recipient BALB/c mice also received 56106 total bone marrow cells from B6 mice. Intracellular cytokines were determined in the splenocytes of each group and were analyzed by confocal microscopy on day 14 after BMT. CD4+IFN-c+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IL-17+, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells were enumerated visually atTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDhigher magnification (projected on a screen) by four individuals, the mean values are presented in the form of a histogram. *P,0.05, **p,0.001 versus the vehicle-treated group. Results are shown as mean 6 SD (n = 5 mice per group). (B) Fourteen days after BMT, lymph node cells were isolated from each group and then analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-c. The experiment was performed once with six mice per group. (C) Fourteen days after BMT, splenocytes isolated from each group were stained with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies followed by intracellular IFN-c, IL-4, Foxp3, and IL-17 antibodies and examined by flow cytometry. The data is representative of at least three independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gCurcumin Treatment Title Loaded From File Altered B Cell SubpopulationsTo determine whether there was a change in B cell subpopulations due to curcumin treatm.Rom at least 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDFigure 2. Blockade of AP-1 by curcumin reduces mortality from acute GVHD. (A) C57BL/6 (B6) splenocytes (16107 cells) were incubated with 10 mM curcumin or control vehicle (DMSO) for 1 h at 37uC before adoptive transfer into lethally irradiated (800 cGy) BALB/c (recipient) mice. Recipients also received 56106 total bone marrow cells from B6 mice and were monitored for weight loss, clinical signs of acute GVHD and recipients survival. Combined data from two independent experiments (n = 10 per group) are shown. (B) The left panels are representative tissue sections of liver, skin, colon and lung after transplantation of control (DMSO) or curcumin-treated (n = 6) splenocytes. Histology that are shown is representative of two independent experiments. This section was stained with H E (original magnification, 6200). Right panels are average score of liver, skin, colon and lung of each group. Tissues were collected on day 14 after transplantation. Results are shown as mean 6 SEM of 6 mice. *P,0.05. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gdid not affect absolute number of T cell subsets in recipient mice (Fig. S3). Conclusively, the attenuated severity of acute GVHD following transplantation with curcumin-treated splenocytes may result from the restoring balance between Th1, andTreg differentiation, not through the alteration of absolute number of immune cells such as T cells, HSC, DC, and NK cells.Figure 3. Reduced expression of c-Fos and c-Jun, components of AP-1, in skin and intestine from curcumin-treated GVHD animals. Representative examples of c-Fos (A) and c-Jun (B) immunohistochemical staining in skin and intestine tissue from GVHD mice. Positive immunoreactivity appears as a brown color and is counterstained with blue or green. Original magnification, 6400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDFigure 4. Analysis of CD4+ T helper cells in curcumin-treated GVHD mice. (A) C57BL/6 (B6) splenocytes (16107 cells) were incubated with 10 mM curcumin or control vehicle (DMSO) for 1 h at 37uC before adoptive transfer into lethally irradiated (800 cGy) BALB/c mice. Recipient BALB/c mice also received 56106 total bone marrow cells from B6 mice. Intracellular cytokines were determined in the splenocytes of each group and were analyzed by confocal microscopy on day 14 after BMT. CD4+IFN-c+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IL-17+, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells were enumerated visually atTherapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin in Acute GVHDhigher magnification (projected on a screen) by four individuals, the mean values are presented in the form of a histogram. *P,0.05, **p,0.001 versus the vehicle-treated group. Results are shown as mean 6 SD (n = 5 mice per group). (B) Fourteen days after BMT, lymph node cells were isolated from each group and then analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-c. The experiment was performed once with six mice per group. (C) Fourteen days after BMT, splenocytes isolated from each group were stained with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies followed by intracellular IFN-c, IL-4, Foxp3, and IL-17 antibodies and examined by flow cytometry. The data is representative of at least three independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067171.gCurcumin Treatment Altered B Cell SubpopulationsTo determine whether there was a change in B cell subpopulations due to curcumin treatm.

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