E in the aspect ratio.Plasticity of Tumor Cell Morphology and

E in the aspect ratio.Plasticity of Tumor Cell Morphology and Migration Behavior under Changing MicroenvironmentsThe morphology and migration of the MDA-MB-231 cells were followed when flows were introduced to the two side channels. When MDA-MB-231 cells were initially cultured in type I collagen matrix for 24 hours with no flow along the two side channels, the majority of motile cells exhibited a typical elongated (or mesenchymal-like) morphology, in contrast to a more rounded (or amoeboid-like) morphology (See Figure 2A,B). Initially, about 50 of motile cells had aspect ratios less than 3. After 8 hoursTumor Cell 34540-22-2 web chemoinvasion in SDF-1a Gradients Follows the Ligand ?Receptor Binding KineticsFigure 3A shows the average cell velocity along the gradient Vx as a function of SDF-1a gradient. Note that Vx peaks at SDF-1a gradient of 111 nM/mm. Early work from our groups [24] and others [38] have shown that immune cell chemoinvasion follows a ligand ?receptor kinetics, indicating that cell chemoinvasion is governed by the difference of the ligand ?receptor bound states at the front and rear of the cell. Therefore, we fitted the Vx versus SDF-1a gradient data to the ligand ?receptor association kinetic equation, more specifically the difference of the ligand ?receptor bound states at the frontRoles of Two Cytokines in Tumor Cell MigrationFigure 4. Tumor cells S. These mice developed T-cell lymphomas, lungGC B-Cells Resist Transformation by display no chemoinvasion but mild chemokinesis in linear EGF gradients. Average cell velocity Vx along the EGF gradient (A), average cell speed U (B), average persistence length along the EGF concentration gradient Px (C) and average persistence length P (D) as a function of EGF gradients. The stars were obtained using a nonparametric t-test compared to the control group (Mann-Whitney test with * for 0.01,p,0.05, ** for 0.001,p,0.01, and *** for p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068422.gand rear of the cell, Vx A (C+C2 avg zKD ), where A is a constantand C is the SDF-1a concentration (See Figure 3A). The fitted data provides a ligand ?receptor association constant KD = (59.2638.3) nM. This agrees well with the reported literature value of KD = (55615) nM, where the kinetic association constant of SDF-1a and CXCR4 was measured using an elegant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method [39,40].Tumor Cells Showed no Significant Chemoinvasion, but Mild Chemokinesis in EGF GradientsThe Vx versus EGF gradients plot in Figure 4A shows that no statistically significant chemoinvasion behavior were observed under four different EGF gradients; in contrast to previous report that EGF is a chemo-attractant for human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) using Boyden chamber assays [12,41], Dunn Chamber (a 2D assay where cells are plated on a substrate) [42] and rat breast tumor cells [43]. Cell average speed has an increase of about 8?2 for EGF gradient of 0.56, 5.56 and 18.52 nM/ mm or average EGF concentration of 0.25, 2.5 and 8.33 nM. This is consistent with previous report that a small fraction (2? ) of the EGF receptors display a high EGF-binding affinity (KD = 10?100 pM), whereas the majority of the receptors (95?8 ) display a lowered association constant (KD = 2? nM) obtained by a 125I labeled EGF binding assay [44,45]. It should also be noted that EGFR is known to internalize in the presence of ligand binding, which may also contribute to the behavior observed in Figure 4B [46]. The difference of our chemoinvasion results in EGF gradients to those reported in the literature using Bo.E in the aspect ratio.Plasticity of Tumor Cell Morphology and Migration Behavior under Changing MicroenvironmentsThe morphology and migration of the MDA-MB-231 cells were followed when flows were introduced to the two side channels. When MDA-MB-231 cells were initially cultured in type I collagen matrix for 24 hours with no flow along the two side channels, the majority of motile cells exhibited a typical elongated (or mesenchymal-like) morphology, in contrast to a more rounded (or amoeboid-like) morphology (See Figure 2A,B). Initially, about 50 of motile cells had aspect ratios less than 3. After 8 hoursTumor Cell Chemoinvasion in SDF-1a Gradients Follows the Ligand ?Receptor Binding KineticsFigure 3A shows the average cell velocity along the gradient Vx as a function of SDF-1a gradient. Note that Vx peaks at SDF-1a gradient of 111 nM/mm. Early work from our groups [24] and others [38] have shown that immune cell chemoinvasion follows a ligand ?receptor kinetics, indicating that cell chemoinvasion is governed by the difference of the ligand ?receptor bound states at the front and rear of the cell. Therefore, we fitted the Vx versus SDF-1a gradient data to the ligand ?receptor association kinetic equation, more specifically the difference of the ligand ?receptor bound states at the frontRoles of Two Cytokines in Tumor Cell MigrationFigure 4. Tumor cells display no chemoinvasion but mild chemokinesis in linear EGF gradients. Average cell velocity Vx along the EGF gradient (A), average cell speed U (B), average persistence length along the EGF concentration gradient Px (C) and average persistence length P (D) as a function of EGF gradients. The stars were obtained using a nonparametric t-test compared to the control group (Mann-Whitney test with * for 0.01,p,0.05, ** for 0.001,p,0.01, and *** for p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068422.gand rear of the cell, Vx A (C+C2 avg zKD ), where A is a constantand C is the SDF-1a concentration (See Figure 3A). The fitted data provides a ligand ?receptor association constant KD = (59.2638.3) nM. This agrees well with the reported literature value of KD = (55615) nM, where the kinetic association constant of SDF-1a and CXCR4 was measured using an elegant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method [39,40].Tumor Cells Showed no Significant Chemoinvasion, but Mild Chemokinesis in EGF GradientsThe Vx versus EGF gradients plot in Figure 4A shows that no statistically significant chemoinvasion behavior were observed under four different EGF gradients; in contrast to previous report that EGF is a chemo-attractant for human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) using Boyden chamber assays [12,41], Dunn Chamber (a 2D assay where cells are plated on a substrate) [42] and rat breast tumor cells [43]. Cell average speed has an increase of about 8?2 for EGF gradient of 0.56, 5.56 and 18.52 nM/ mm or average EGF concentration of 0.25, 2.5 and 8.33 nM. This is consistent with previous report that a small fraction (2? ) of the EGF receptors display a high EGF-binding affinity (KD = 10?100 pM), whereas the majority of the receptors (95?8 ) display a lowered association constant (KD = 2? nM) obtained by a 125I labeled EGF binding assay [44,45]. It should also be noted that EGFR is known to internalize in the presence of ligand binding, which may also contribute to the behavior observed in Figure 4B [46]. The difference of our chemoinvasion results in EGF gradients to those reported in the literature using Bo.

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