As percent area of the cortex and hippocampus combined. Data was

As percent area of the cortex and hippocampus combined. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. Data displayed as mean 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per dose. *P,.05, **P,.01. doi:10.1371/SC 1 custom synthesis journal.pone.0053275.gneurogenesis, which has been documented in response to traditional radiotherapy [38] as well as exposure to 56Fe particles [5,7,39]. In addition to neuronal proliferation defects, impaired cognition couldalso result from inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) [40], an effect which has been reported with 56Fe particle irradiation in the APP23 transgenic mouse model of AD [41].Space Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 3. Radiation increases select Ab isoforms but has no effect on APP processing. Dot plot analysis of soluble Ab40 (A), Ab42 (B) and insoluble Ab40 (C) and Ab42 (D). Each dot purchase AKT inhibitor 2 represents one animal. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. (E, F) Male 0 cGy and 100 cGy APP (E) and b-C terminal fragment (F) protein levels were measured via Western blot and standardized to a-tubulin. Representative images of blots are present in E’ and F’. Results were analyzed with Student’s t-test. Data displayed as mean 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per dose. *P,.05, **P,.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gSpace Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 4. There is no change in glial activation after 56Fe particle irradiation. (A) CD68 area was normalized to individual plaque area to account for differences in plaque size. 12 plaques in each mouse were analyzed and averaged together to compare male control and 100 cGy irradiated mice. (B) CD68 was also normalized to the total Iba-1 microglia area around the plaque to account for potential changes in 23977191 microglia number. (C) Iba-1 area was standardized to plaque area. Each dot represents a single animal. (D) Visual representation of CD68/Iba-1 staining around a plaque. Images acquired at 40x magnification, scale bar is 5 mm. (E) Representative hippocampal images taken to demonstrate Iba-1+ microglial morphology. Images acquired at 20x magnification, scale bar is 10 mm. (F) Astrocyte activation was measured using GFAP percent area measurements in the cortex (n = 4? mice per dose). (G) Insulin Degrading 23727046 Enzyme (IDE) protein level was measured and quantified via Western blot analysis. IDE levels were normalized against a-tubulin as a loading control (n = 7 mice per dose). Representative images are shown in G’. (H) Protein levels of TNFa were quantified via ELISA. Data is presented as mean 6 SD. The results were analysed with Student’s t test, n = 13?4 mice per dose in A, B, C and H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gIn addition to behavioral deficits, we saw enhanced Ab plaque accumulation as judged by two different markers. 6E10 showed an increase in total deposited Ab levels and Congo red showed an increase in aggregation of plaques into dense fibrils. These results were further confirmed by ELISA data (Fig. 3). Ab plaque staining is used to gauge progression and stage AD pathology [12]. The increases observed in soluble Ab and insoluble plaque depositionsuggest that GCR caused more rapid progression of AD, at least for male mice. The female group was sacrificed at an earlier age than the male mice due to concerns related to several female mice dying early. Given the small number that died, we do not know whether this was related to radia.As percent area of the cortex and hippocampus combined. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. Data displayed as mean 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per dose. *P,.05, **P,.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gneurogenesis, which has been documented in response to traditional radiotherapy [38] as well as exposure to 56Fe particles [5,7,39]. In addition to neuronal proliferation defects, impaired cognition couldalso result from inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) [40], an effect which has been reported with 56Fe particle irradiation in the APP23 transgenic mouse model of AD [41].Space Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 3. Radiation increases select Ab isoforms but has no effect on APP processing. Dot plot analysis of soluble Ab40 (A), Ab42 (B) and insoluble Ab40 (C) and Ab42 (D). Each dot represents one animal. Data was analyzed with Student’s t-test for the females and one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post test for the males. (E, F) Male 0 cGy and 100 cGy APP (E) and b-C terminal fragment (F) protein levels were measured via Western blot and standardized to a-tubulin. Representative images of blots are present in E’ and F’. Results were analyzed with Student’s t-test. Data displayed as mean 6 SD, n = 8?4 animals per dose. *P,.05, **P,.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gSpace Radiation Promotes Alzheimer PathologyFigure 4. There is no change in glial activation after 56Fe particle irradiation. (A) CD68 area was normalized to individual plaque area to account for differences in plaque size. 12 plaques in each mouse were analyzed and averaged together to compare male control and 100 cGy irradiated mice. (B) CD68 was also normalized to the total Iba-1 microglia area around the plaque to account for potential changes in 23977191 microglia number. (C) Iba-1 area was standardized to plaque area. Each dot represents a single animal. (D) Visual representation of CD68/Iba-1 staining around a plaque. Images acquired at 40x magnification, scale bar is 5 mm. (E) Representative hippocampal images taken to demonstrate Iba-1+ microglial morphology. Images acquired at 20x magnification, scale bar is 10 mm. (F) Astrocyte activation was measured using GFAP percent area measurements in the cortex (n = 4? mice per dose). (G) Insulin Degrading 23727046 Enzyme (IDE) protein level was measured and quantified via Western blot analysis. IDE levels were normalized against a-tubulin as a loading control (n = 7 mice per dose). Representative images are shown in G’. (H) Protein levels of TNFa were quantified via ELISA. Data is presented as mean 6 SD. The results were analysed with Student’s t test, n = 13?4 mice per dose in A, B, C and H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053275.gIn addition to behavioral deficits, we saw enhanced Ab plaque accumulation as judged by two different markers. 6E10 showed an increase in total deposited Ab levels and Congo red showed an increase in aggregation of plaques into dense fibrils. These results were further confirmed by ELISA data (Fig. 3). Ab plaque staining is used to gauge progression and stage AD pathology [12]. The increases observed in soluble Ab and insoluble plaque depositionsuggest that GCR caused more rapid progression of AD, at least for male mice. The female group was sacrificed at an earlier age than the male mice due to concerns related to several female mice dying early. Given the small number that died, we do not know whether this was related to radia.

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