On of Twist2 in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that

On of Twist2 in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Twist2 is continuously localized in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells that were stably selected, which may help carcinoma cells maintain the similar histological behavior in a noninvasive state. We need to further AKT inhibitor 2 supplier explore this possibility in the future. Cells with cytoplasm Twistshowed no PS 1145 web obvious change in cellular morphology with strong membranous or cytoplasm expression of E-cadherin in primary breast cancers or metastases. Only those transiently transfected cells with Twist2 overexpression in nuclei showed loss of Ecadherin. Triggered by some signal from the activated stroma during invasion, Twist2 could accumulate in nuclei during initial invasion and metastasis, and functions as a transcriptional factor to regulate EMT. Twist2 in nuclei could remarkably repress Ecadherin in the invasion edge to promote EMT, thus increase cell motility and invasiveness to enter the new adjacent tissue [1,33]. Recent findings suggest that cells undergone EMT were responsible for degrading the surrounding matrix to enable invasion and intravasation of both EMT and non-EMT cells. Only those non-EMT cells that had entered the blood stream were able to re-establish colonies in the secondary sites [10]. Similarly, high nuclear b-catenin expression at the invasion front and less nuclear b-catenin in central tumor regions exist in colorectal carcinoma tissues [31]. Thus, carcinoma cells may experience EMT in invasive front area, then the MET (mesenchymalepithelial transition) process in metastasis. When cancer cells move to their new homing sites, Twist2 redistributes to the cytoplasm with E-cadherin re-expression, thus carcinoma cells revert into a noninvasive state in the absence of ongoing exposure to the microenvironmental signals. This plasticity might result in the formation of new tumor colonies of carcinoma cells exhibiting a histopathology similar to those of carcinoma cells in the primary tumor that did not undergo an EMT. It is likely that EMT is triggered by genetic and epigenetic alterations of the tumor cells and their interaction with the surrounding microenvironment including stromal cells and matrix components. Little is known on the mechanisms controlling the release of these EMT signals within a tumor. In part, the understanding of these mechanisms is complicated by the fact that the EMT signals controlling cell number and position within tissues are thought to be transmitted in a temporally and spatially regulated fashion from one cell to its neighbors. Such paracrine signaling is difficult to access experimentally [30].ConclusionsOur data demonstrate that Twist2 is up-regulated in breast carcinomas. Twist2 expression significantly increases and is correlated with tumor histological type and metastasis of breast cancer. Twist2 may be a potential diagnostic biomarker of breast carcinomas. The differential cellular distribution of Twist2 may be associated with its role in tumor progression. Our findings indicated heterogeneous expression of Twist2 in tumors may have a functional significance: the cytoplasmic Twist2 at tumor center and lymph metastases contributes to the maintenance of epithelial cancer characteristics with E-cadherin expression in a noninvasiveHeterogeneous Twist2 Expression in Breast CancersFigure 4. The regulation of E-cadherin expression by Twist2 in breast cancer cells. A. Immunoblot analysis showing that strong expression of E-cadherin was found with cytopla.On of Twist2 in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Twist2 is continuously localized in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells that were stably selected, which may help carcinoma cells maintain the similar histological behavior in a noninvasive state. We need to further explore this possibility in the future. Cells with cytoplasm Twistshowed no obvious change in cellular morphology with strong membranous or cytoplasm expression of E-cadherin in primary breast cancers or metastases. Only those transiently transfected cells with Twist2 overexpression in nuclei showed loss of Ecadherin. Triggered by some signal from the activated stroma during invasion, Twist2 could accumulate in nuclei during initial invasion and metastasis, and functions as a transcriptional factor to regulate EMT. Twist2 in nuclei could remarkably repress Ecadherin in the invasion edge to promote EMT, thus increase cell motility and invasiveness to enter the new adjacent tissue [1,33]. Recent findings suggest that cells undergone EMT were responsible for degrading the surrounding matrix to enable invasion and intravasation of both EMT and non-EMT cells. Only those non-EMT cells that had entered the blood stream were able to re-establish colonies in the secondary sites [10]. Similarly, high nuclear b-catenin expression at the invasion front and less nuclear b-catenin in central tumor regions exist in colorectal carcinoma tissues [31]. Thus, carcinoma cells may experience EMT in invasive front area, then the MET (mesenchymalepithelial transition) process in metastasis. When cancer cells move to their new homing sites, Twist2 redistributes to the cytoplasm with E-cadherin re-expression, thus carcinoma cells revert into a noninvasive state in the absence of ongoing exposure to the microenvironmental signals. This plasticity might result in the formation of new tumor colonies of carcinoma cells exhibiting a histopathology similar to those of carcinoma cells in the primary tumor that did not undergo an EMT. It is likely that EMT is triggered by genetic and epigenetic alterations of the tumor cells and their interaction with the surrounding microenvironment including stromal cells and matrix components. Little is known on the mechanisms controlling the release of these EMT signals within a tumor. In part, the understanding of these mechanisms is complicated by the fact that the EMT signals controlling cell number and position within tissues are thought to be transmitted in a temporally and spatially regulated fashion from one cell to its neighbors. Such paracrine signaling is difficult to access experimentally [30].ConclusionsOur data demonstrate that Twist2 is up-regulated in breast carcinomas. Twist2 expression significantly increases and is correlated with tumor histological type and metastasis of breast cancer. Twist2 may be a potential diagnostic biomarker of breast carcinomas. The differential cellular distribution of Twist2 may be associated with its role in tumor progression. Our findings indicated heterogeneous expression of Twist2 in tumors may have a functional significance: the cytoplasmic Twist2 at tumor center and lymph metastases contributes to the maintenance of epithelial cancer characteristics with E-cadherin expression in a noninvasiveHeterogeneous Twist2 Expression in Breast CancersFigure 4. The regulation of E-cadherin expression by Twist2 in breast cancer cells. A. Immunoblot analysis showing that strong expression of E-cadherin was found with cytopla.

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