Mon dominantly inherited ataxia [1]. It is a member of the polyglutamine

Mon dominantly inherited ataxia [1]. It is a member of the polyglutamine (polyQ) neurodegenerative disease family which includes Huntington’s disease (HD), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), dentatorubral- pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), and spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17 [2?]. It has been demonstrated that polyQ expansion increased the cellular toxicity of the proteins and was responsible for the diseases. In normal individuals, the length of the CAG repeat varies between 12 and 37 trinucleotides whereas in SCA3/MJD patients it varies between 49 to 86 repeat units which located near the carboxy-terminus of SCA3 gene (MJD1) on chromosome 14q32.1 [5], leading to the toxic translational product of polyQ-expanded ataxin-3. The pathology of SCA3/MJD includes severe order UKI-1 neuronal loss in the spinal cord and specific brain regions, such as dentate nuclei (cerebellum), pontine nuclei (brainstem), and substantia nigra (basal ganglia) [6?]. Nuclear inclusions are detected in both affected and unaffected neurons of SCA3/MJD patients [8?]. It is unclear if these aggregates contribute to neuronal dysfunction or possibly represent a protective mechanism, although some recent models suggest an inverse correlation between accumulation of aggregates and neuronal loss [10?1]. Recently, post-translational modifications have been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of polyQ diseases. There isincreasing evidence demonstrating that different target proteins can be post-translational modified by SUMOylation. And the modified proteins are possible to involve in numerous neurological diseases including polyQ disorders [12]. SUMO is an ubiquitinlike protein with 20 identity to ubiquitin [13]. In vertebrates, the SUMO family has at least four members, SUMO-1, SUMO-2, SUMO-3, 11967625 and SUMO-4 [14?7]. SUMO modification may have altered the function, activity or localization of its substrates [14,18?0]. The conjugation of SUMO proteins, or SUMOylation, is a post-translational modification process that shares common ancestry and core enzymological features with ubiquitination but has distinct functional roles. SUMOs initially exist in an inactive form, which is processed by the SUMO specific protease to expose the glycine residues at their carboxy-terminal that are required for the formation of SUMO rotein conjugates. SUMOylation is a multistep process, which involves an activating enzyme E1 (SAE1 and SAE2), a conjugating enzyme E2 (Ubc9) and, in some cases, a ligating enzyme E3 [21?2]. SUMOylation is thought to modify the interactions in multiprotein complexes [23]. Beside its role as a covalent modifier, SUMO can bind non-covalently to SUMO-interacting motifs, which have been identified in many proteins [24], among which several are related to polyQ diseases such as androgen receptor, huntingtin, ataxin-1, and ataxin-7 [25?8]. SUMO and ubiquitin share a common three-dimensional structure, except that SUMO has an additional short amino terminal extension [29]. It has been reported that SUMO modification of some proteins on a lysineThe Effect of SUMOylation on Ataxin-residue blocks ubiquitination at the same site, resulting in an inhibition of protein degradation and an alteration of protein function [26,30]. In HD, SUMOylation of mutant huntingtin increases the stability of the protein and exacerbate get AZ 876 neurodegeneration. In our previous study, SUMO-1 had been identified as a novel ataxin-3-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid technology. Bo.Mon dominantly inherited ataxia [1]. It is a member of the polyglutamine (polyQ) neurodegenerative disease family which includes Huntington’s disease (HD), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), dentatorubral- pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), and spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17 [2?]. It has been demonstrated that polyQ expansion increased the cellular toxicity of the proteins and was responsible for the diseases. In normal individuals, the length of the CAG repeat varies between 12 and 37 trinucleotides whereas in SCA3/MJD patients it varies between 49 to 86 repeat units which located near the carboxy-terminus of SCA3 gene (MJD1) on chromosome 14q32.1 [5], leading to the toxic translational product of polyQ-expanded ataxin-3. The pathology of SCA3/MJD includes severe neuronal loss in the spinal cord and specific brain regions, such as dentate nuclei (cerebellum), pontine nuclei (brainstem), and substantia nigra (basal ganglia) [6?]. Nuclear inclusions are detected in both affected and unaffected neurons of SCA3/MJD patients [8?]. It is unclear if these aggregates contribute to neuronal dysfunction or possibly represent a protective mechanism, although some recent models suggest an inverse correlation between accumulation of aggregates and neuronal loss [10?1]. Recently, post-translational modifications have been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of polyQ diseases. There isincreasing evidence demonstrating that different target proteins can be post-translational modified by SUMOylation. And the modified proteins are possible to involve in numerous neurological diseases including polyQ disorders [12]. SUMO is an ubiquitinlike protein with 20 identity to ubiquitin [13]. In vertebrates, the SUMO family has at least four members, SUMO-1, SUMO-2, SUMO-3, 11967625 and SUMO-4 [14?7]. SUMO modification may have altered the function, activity or localization of its substrates [14,18?0]. The conjugation of SUMO proteins, or SUMOylation, is a post-translational modification process that shares common ancestry and core enzymological features with ubiquitination but has distinct functional roles. SUMOs initially exist in an inactive form, which is processed by the SUMO specific protease to expose the glycine residues at their carboxy-terminal that are required for the formation of SUMO rotein conjugates. SUMOylation is a multistep process, which involves an activating enzyme E1 (SAE1 and SAE2), a conjugating enzyme E2 (Ubc9) and, in some cases, a ligating enzyme E3 [21?2]. SUMOylation is thought to modify the interactions in multiprotein complexes [23]. Beside its role as a covalent modifier, SUMO can bind non-covalently to SUMO-interacting motifs, which have been identified in many proteins [24], among which several are related to polyQ diseases such as androgen receptor, huntingtin, ataxin-1, and ataxin-7 [25?8]. SUMO and ubiquitin share a common three-dimensional structure, except that SUMO has an additional short amino terminal extension [29]. It has been reported that SUMO modification of some proteins on a lysineThe Effect of SUMOylation on Ataxin-residue blocks ubiquitination at the same site, resulting in an inhibition of protein degradation and an alteration of protein function [26,30]. In HD, SUMOylation of mutant huntingtin increases the stability of the protein and exacerbate neurodegeneration. In our previous study, SUMO-1 had been identified as a novel ataxin-3-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid technology. Bo.

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