Ional Design of Binding PocketsFigure 2. Two-dimensional structures of benchmark set ligands.

Ional Design of Binding PocketsFigure 2. Two-dimensional structures of benchmark set ligands. The ligands of the test cases of our benchmark sets. See Table 1 for which ligand belongs to which test case. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052505.gprogram was unable to identify any acceptable pocket conformation. One limitation of POCKETOPTIMIZER and a probable cause for such problems is the assumption of a fixed backbone in our designs. An adjustment of the backbone conformation might have helped to accommodate the tyrosine. It is also conceivable that our way of systematically sampling possible ligand poses could have failed to generate a pose that is sterically compatible in the neuroaminidase case.Rosetta’s enzyme design application does not suffer from unresolvable vdW clashes. It includes minimization steps in its algorithm that can resolve potential clashes introduced by discrete conformational sampling. However, Rosetta apparently cannot convey its superiority in modeling the binding pocket side chains to the prediction of the correct binding score order. It is unable to predict the rearrangements of side chain conformations that lead to binding affinity changes in the more complicated test cases. TheComputational Design of Binding PocketsTable 1. Benchmark set.Mutants Protein Ligand Positions AA F W L R Carbonic anhydrase II Acetazolamide 198 E D D7r4 amine binding protein Tryptamine 111 L E Q aEstrogen receptor Estradiol 353 A FIFI VIVI VVVV HIV-1 protease DMP323 A:82, A:84, B:82, B:84 FVFV N Ketosteroid isomerase Equilenin 240 D AG Lectin II MedChemExpress KDM5A-IN-1 O1-methyl-mannose 22, 24 SN H N Methylglyoxal synthase 2-Phospho-gylcolate 98 Q H Neuroaminidase test 1 Oseltamivir 274 Y N Neuroaminidase test 2 Oseltamivir 294 S H G D Purine nucleoside phosphorylase DADMe-Immucillin-H 257 F N E Streptavidin test 1 Biotin s23 23977191 A S Streptavidin test 2 Biotin 27 A C D Thymidylate synthase dCMP 229 N DG Trypsin Benzamidine 189, 226 GD aff. [nM] 5.8 8.6 9.6 86 280 53 inf 0.29 3.53 60 0.4 0.8 20 800 810 45750 2780 42900 2000 5800 46000 0.32 84.8 0.32 25.9 0.01 0.27 0.9 0.95 0.0001 0.0069 0.028 0.0001 0.01 490 2800 160000 12000 15000000 ?1met ?1mes 1meu 1ogx 1oh0 2jdn 2jdy 1egh 1s89 1s8a 2hu4 3cl0 2hu4 3cl2 1rsz 2a0w 2a0y 2a0x 1swe ?1n43 1swe 1n9m 1nja 1njc 1nje 1ane 1bra PDB 1ydb ??1ydd 1yda 2pql ?1gwrEach row lists a test case. Columns Protein and Ligand contain the name of protein or ligand, Positions the indices of the mutable positions (for HIV protease along with the chain identifier, in the other cases the pocket is formed by one 24786787 chain only), Mutants lists the variants: in subcolumn AA the amino acids at the mutable positions, in aff. the affinities of the variants, and in PDB the PDB identifier of the corresponding crystal structure, should one exist. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052505.tenergy term for hydrogen bonds in ROSETTA seems to have less influence on the output than in our program. This causes ROSETTA to miss existing hydrogen bonds ITI007 biological activity between ligand and side chains. The binding scores and their differences predicted for different mutants are more dependent on the scaffold structure used in Rosetta designs than it is in POCKETOPTIMIZER. This can be seen inFigure 4: the lines for designs of both POCKETOPTIMIZER variants, Vina and CADDSuite, are more similar to each other than the ones for ROSETTA designs. This is rather surprising, as we anticipated that the limited backbone flexibility included in the ROSETTA enzyme design protocol would lead to less depende.Ional Design of Binding PocketsFigure 2. Two-dimensional structures of benchmark set ligands. The ligands of the test cases of our benchmark sets. See Table 1 for which ligand belongs to which test case. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052505.gprogram was unable to identify any acceptable pocket conformation. One limitation of POCKETOPTIMIZER and a probable cause for such problems is the assumption of a fixed backbone in our designs. An adjustment of the backbone conformation might have helped to accommodate the tyrosine. It is also conceivable that our way of systematically sampling possible ligand poses could have failed to generate a pose that is sterically compatible in the neuroaminidase case.Rosetta’s enzyme design application does not suffer from unresolvable vdW clashes. It includes minimization steps in its algorithm that can resolve potential clashes introduced by discrete conformational sampling. However, Rosetta apparently cannot convey its superiority in modeling the binding pocket side chains to the prediction of the correct binding score order. It is unable to predict the rearrangements of side chain conformations that lead to binding affinity changes in the more complicated test cases. TheComputational Design of Binding PocketsTable 1. Benchmark set.Mutants Protein Ligand Positions AA F W L R Carbonic anhydrase II Acetazolamide 198 E D D7r4 amine binding protein Tryptamine 111 L E Q aEstrogen receptor Estradiol 353 A FIFI VIVI VVVV HIV-1 protease DMP323 A:82, A:84, B:82, B:84 FVFV N Ketosteroid isomerase Equilenin 240 D AG Lectin II O1-methyl-mannose 22, 24 SN H N Methylglyoxal synthase 2-Phospho-gylcolate 98 Q H Neuroaminidase test 1 Oseltamivir 274 Y N Neuroaminidase test 2 Oseltamivir 294 S H G D Purine nucleoside phosphorylase DADMe-Immucillin-H 257 F N E Streptavidin test 1 Biotin s23 23977191 A S Streptavidin test 2 Biotin 27 A C D Thymidylate synthase dCMP 229 N DG Trypsin Benzamidine 189, 226 GD aff. [nM] 5.8 8.6 9.6 86 280 53 inf 0.29 3.53 60 0.4 0.8 20 800 810 45750 2780 42900 2000 5800 46000 0.32 84.8 0.32 25.9 0.01 0.27 0.9 0.95 0.0001 0.0069 0.028 0.0001 0.01 490 2800 160000 12000 15000000 ?1met ?1mes 1meu 1ogx 1oh0 2jdn 2jdy 1egh 1s89 1s8a 2hu4 3cl0 2hu4 3cl2 1rsz 2a0w 2a0y 2a0x 1swe ?1n43 1swe 1n9m 1nja 1njc 1nje 1ane 1bra PDB 1ydb ??1ydd 1yda 2pql ?1gwrEach row lists a test case. Columns Protein and Ligand contain the name of protein or ligand, Positions the indices of the mutable positions (for HIV protease along with the chain identifier, in the other cases the pocket is formed by one 24786787 chain only), Mutants lists the variants: in subcolumn AA the amino acids at the mutable positions, in aff. the affinities of the variants, and in PDB the PDB identifier of the corresponding crystal structure, should one exist. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052505.tenergy term for hydrogen bonds in ROSETTA seems to have less influence on the output than in our program. This causes ROSETTA to miss existing hydrogen bonds between ligand and side chains. The binding scores and their differences predicted for different mutants are more dependent on the scaffold structure used in Rosetta designs than it is in POCKETOPTIMIZER. This can be seen inFigure 4: the lines for designs of both POCKETOPTIMIZER variants, Vina and CADDSuite, are more similar to each other than the ones for ROSETTA designs. This is rather surprising, as we anticipated that the limited backbone flexibility included in the ROSETTA enzyme design protocol would lead to less depende.

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