Presence of the Val-x-Pro sequence is coincidence. Either way, our observations

Presence of the Val-x-Pro sequence is coincidence. Either way, our observations suggest that the data invoking Siah1 interactions with PEG3 should be re-evaluated.Concluding RemarksIn summary, we have determined the structure of SCAN domain from PEG3, a predicted transcription factor, and compared it with K162 site available SCAN domain structures. Our results show this domain forms a stable homodimer and we provide an analysis of the residues forming the dimer interface. The sequence alignment and an overlay of PEG3-SCAN with available SCAN domain structures shows overall structural 10457188 conservation and serves to identify key residues important to the creation of the PEG3SCAN dimer interface.SCAN Domain of PEGThe SCAN domain of PEG3 appears to function as a convenient dimerization domain. Gel filtration chromatography and NMR studies revealed no interaction between the SCAN domain and the potential PEG3-binding protein Siah1. Future studies will be needed to determine if indeed the SCAN domain of PEG3 interacts with other SCAN family members as well as other protein motifs. The validation of binding partners would represent a crucial step towards unraveling the biological role of PEG3 itself.AcknowledgmentsWe acknowledge Dr. Derek Ogg for excellent support and Dr. Navratna Vajpai for running the NMR experiment.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: VR WNH. Performed the experiments: VR. Analyzed the data: VR TCE WNH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VR. Wrote the paper: VR TCE WNH.
Organophosphorus pesticides are environmental pollutants in agricultural and non-agricultural products. They have been widely used in agriculture to protect crops against insect damage, as well as in the household to control a number of ecoparasites in domestic animals [1]. In addition, they are also used to protect turf and ornamental plants. There are a few reports in the literature about pollution of drinking water by organophosphorus pesticides [2]. Organophosphorus pesticides are an alternative to organochlorine pesticides but although they degrade more rapidly, they have greater acute toxicity, posing risks to people at high exposure [3]. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that organophosphorus pesticides are mutagenic, carcinogenic [4?], cytotoxic [8], genotoxic [9,10], teratogenic [11] and immunotoxic [12]. One of the most important aspects in minimizing the potential hazards of organophosphorus pesticides to humans and the environment is to monitor pesticide residues. The European Union Commission (EU) has set maximum residue limits (MRLs) to control levels of pesticide residues and many countries have established legal directives and monitoring programs to supervise whether or not pesticide residues are compliant with the statutory maximum residue levels. Classical instrumental analytical techniques for pesticide analysis involve gas chromatography [13?5], high-performance liquid chromatography [16], gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry [17,18] or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry [19]. Although chromatography based methods are sensitive and reliable, they require sophisticated 115103-85-0 equipment, skilled analysts and time-consuming sample preparation steps. Moreover, organic solvents used in the detectionprocess may lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, the development of a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and high sample throughput analytical method for detection of pesticides is of particular si.Presence of the Val-x-Pro sequence is coincidence. Either way, our observations suggest that the data invoking Siah1 interactions with PEG3 should be re-evaluated.Concluding RemarksIn summary, we have determined the structure of SCAN domain from PEG3, a predicted transcription factor, and compared it with available SCAN domain structures. Our results show this domain forms a stable homodimer and we provide an analysis of the residues forming the dimer interface. The sequence alignment and an overlay of PEG3-SCAN with available SCAN domain structures shows overall structural 10457188 conservation and serves to identify key residues important to the creation of the PEG3SCAN dimer interface.SCAN Domain of PEGThe SCAN domain of PEG3 appears to function as a convenient dimerization domain. Gel filtration chromatography and NMR studies revealed no interaction between the SCAN domain and the potential PEG3-binding protein Siah1. Future studies will be needed to determine if indeed the SCAN domain of PEG3 interacts with other SCAN family members as well as other protein motifs. The validation of binding partners would represent a crucial step towards unraveling the biological role of PEG3 itself.AcknowledgmentsWe acknowledge Dr. Derek Ogg for excellent support and Dr. Navratna Vajpai for running the NMR experiment.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: VR WNH. Performed the experiments: VR. Analyzed the data: VR TCE WNH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: VR. Wrote the paper: VR TCE WNH.
Organophosphorus pesticides are environmental pollutants in agricultural and non-agricultural products. They have been widely used in agriculture to protect crops against insect damage, as well as in the household to control a number of ecoparasites in domestic animals [1]. In addition, they are also used to protect turf and ornamental plants. There are a few reports in the literature about pollution of drinking water by organophosphorus pesticides [2]. Organophosphorus pesticides are an alternative to organochlorine pesticides but although they degrade more rapidly, they have greater acute toxicity, posing risks to people at high exposure [3]. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that organophosphorus pesticides are mutagenic, carcinogenic [4?], cytotoxic [8], genotoxic [9,10], teratogenic [11] and immunotoxic [12]. One of the most important aspects in minimizing the potential hazards of organophosphorus pesticides to humans and the environment is to monitor pesticide residues. The European Union Commission (EU) has set maximum residue limits (MRLs) to control levels of pesticide residues and many countries have established legal directives and monitoring programs to supervise whether or not pesticide residues are compliant with the statutory maximum residue levels. Classical instrumental analytical techniques for pesticide analysis involve gas chromatography [13?5], high-performance liquid chromatography [16], gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry [17,18] or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry [19]. Although chromatography based methods are sensitive and reliable, they require sophisticated equipment, skilled analysts and time-consuming sample preparation steps. Moreover, organic solvents used in the detectionprocess may lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, the development of a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and high sample throughput analytical method for detection of pesticides is of particular si.

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