Ntrol LNCaP cells. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065889.gAnti Prostate Cancer Effects of

Ntrol LNCaP cells. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065889.gAnti Prostate Cancer Effects of Piperinethe effects of piperine on prostate cancer cells in subsequent experiments.Piperine treatment 10781694 reduces Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels in LNCaP cellsPSA is the gold standard marker used in diagnosis and monitoring treatment efficacy of prostate cancer. Our initial studies showed that AR-positive LNCaP cells were sensitive to piperine treatment. Piperine treatment at 75 mM concentration significantly inhibited the secretion of PSA to near normal level (4.244 ng/ml) compared to untreated LNCaP cells (41.24 ng/ml) (16960-16-0 site Figure 2). Interestingly, piperine at a low dose range of 25 mM to 60 mM also had a significant impact on PSA secretion from LNCaP cells.Piperine induces apoptosis in PCa cells: Annexin-V FITC staining analysis and caspase activation assayTo determine whether the reduction in proliferation and cell viability of prostate cancer cells by piperine was associated with the induction of apoptosis, LNCaP cells were treated with different concentrations of piperine and the number of BTZ043 apoptotic cells was assessed using the Annexin V?apoptotis detection kit as previously described [12]. LNCaP cells were treated with 60 mM or 75 mM of piperine for 24 h and stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide to visualize the cells under fluorescent microscope. Fluorescent microscopic analysis demonstrated that LNCaP cells treated with piperine resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells compared to control LNCaP cells (Figure 3) in a dose-dependent manner (60 mM and 75 mM respectively). Based on the above results in which we determined the concentration of piperine on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, we selected a piperine concentration of 60 mM for further mechanistic studies with the LNCaP cells. In addition to Annexin-V-staining, we analyzed apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells by Global Caspase activation assay. Caspase is a valuable and reliable marker for apoptosis. We therefore analyzed its activation in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines after treatment with piperine by global caspase activation assay using fluorescently-labeled poly-caspase probe (Figure 4). The cells were incubated with 50?00 mM of piperine at different time points (24, 48, 72 hours). Both LNCaP and PC-3 cells treated with piperine resulted in increased caspase activation. The increase in caspase activation in LNCaP cells was in a dose and time dependent manner whereas PC-3 exhibited consistently high levels of caspase activation at both the concentration and at all the time points except at 48 hours, where caspase activation seemed to decrease and increase again. This may be due to the different sensitivities of cell during various time points. Taken together, these results indicate that piperine-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells via caspase activation.Figure 3. Piperine induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Annexin-VFITC staining of the LNCaP cells shows that cells treated with piperine were positive for annexin V binding as evident from fluorescence signal. Arrow indicates cells positive for Annexin-V staining. Apoptotic cells were quantified based on the number 1676428 of cells positive for Annexin-V staining compared to total cells present in each field. Results show that increasing the concentrations of piperine led to increased apoptosis as shown in the table 1 in Figure 3. Representative results of one of three independent evaluations.Ntrol LNCaP cells. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065889.gAnti Prostate Cancer Effects of Piperinethe effects of piperine on prostate cancer cells in subsequent experiments.Piperine treatment 10781694 reduces Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels in LNCaP cellsPSA is the gold standard marker used in diagnosis and monitoring treatment efficacy of prostate cancer. Our initial studies showed that AR-positive LNCaP cells were sensitive to piperine treatment. Piperine treatment at 75 mM concentration significantly inhibited the secretion of PSA to near normal level (4.244 ng/ml) compared to untreated LNCaP cells (41.24 ng/ml) (Figure 2). Interestingly, piperine at a low dose range of 25 mM to 60 mM also had a significant impact on PSA secretion from LNCaP cells.Piperine induces apoptosis in PCa cells: Annexin-V FITC staining analysis and caspase activation assayTo determine whether the reduction in proliferation and cell viability of prostate cancer cells by piperine was associated with the induction of apoptosis, LNCaP cells were treated with different concentrations of piperine and the number of apoptotic cells was assessed using the Annexin V?apoptotis detection kit as previously described [12]. LNCaP cells were treated with 60 mM or 75 mM of piperine for 24 h and stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide to visualize the cells under fluorescent microscope. Fluorescent microscopic analysis demonstrated that LNCaP cells treated with piperine resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells compared to control LNCaP cells (Figure 3) in a dose-dependent manner (60 mM and 75 mM respectively). Based on the above results in which we determined the concentration of piperine on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, we selected a piperine concentration of 60 mM for further mechanistic studies with the LNCaP cells. In addition to Annexin-V-staining, we analyzed apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells by Global Caspase activation assay. Caspase is a valuable and reliable marker for apoptosis. We therefore analyzed its activation in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines after treatment with piperine by global caspase activation assay using fluorescently-labeled poly-caspase probe (Figure 4). The cells were incubated with 50?00 mM of piperine at different time points (24, 48, 72 hours). Both LNCaP and PC-3 cells treated with piperine resulted in increased caspase activation. The increase in caspase activation in LNCaP cells was in a dose and time dependent manner whereas PC-3 exhibited consistently high levels of caspase activation at both the concentration and at all the time points except at 48 hours, where caspase activation seemed to decrease and increase again. This may be due to the different sensitivities of cell during various time points. Taken together, these results indicate that piperine-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells via caspase activation.Figure 3. Piperine induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Annexin-VFITC staining of the LNCaP cells shows that cells treated with piperine were positive for annexin V binding as evident from fluorescence signal. Arrow indicates cells positive for Annexin-V staining. Apoptotic cells were quantified based on the number 1676428 of cells positive for Annexin-V staining compared to total cells present in each field. Results show that increasing the concentrations of piperine led to increased apoptosis as shown in the table 1 in Figure 3. Representative results of one of three independent evaluations.

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