Ially conferring reduced risks to mental wellbeing. There were relatively high

Ially conferring reduced risks to mental wellbeing. There were relatively high levels of CBGtot (the precursor molecule to THC-A, CBD-A and CBC-A [32]) when compared to other trace phytocannabinoids, with CBG the second most abundant phytocannabinoid in the seized plant material. Research has found that CBG-A increases up to the twelfth week of cultivation (third week of flowering) and then decreases until the end of cultivation, while CBG increases all the way to the end of cultivation [44]. High CBG in seized cannabis plants may indicate that growers may be allowing their plants to mature before harvesting. As a weak partial agonist at cannabinoid type1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) receptors, a highly potent a2 adrenoceptor agonist, and a moderately potent serotonin-1A (5HT1A) Acetovanillone chemical information antagonist [45], there may be a potential use for CBG as an antidepressant and analgesic [46]. We also found trace amounts of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid THC-V, which appears to have an antagonistic 374913-63-0 biological activity effect on CB1 receptors, displacing synthetic CB1 agonists CP55940 and WIN-55212 and attenuating the antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of THC in vivo [47]. However, the THC-V concentrations used to produce an antagonistic response are at least 100?000 times higher than what would be reasonably absorbed during smoking of a typical joint. CBC, 16985061 another trace non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid appears to modulate the effect of THC by inhibiting endocannabinoid cellular reuptake, and is also a potent activator of TRPA1 receptors, with apparent analgesic [48] and anti-inflammatory effects [49,50]. However, like CBD, the trend for maximising THC production may have led to marginalisation of CBC as historically, CBC has sometimes been reported to be the second or third most abundant cannabinoid [51]. Some limitations inherent in the data presented here should be acknowledged. Due to funding constraints we could not collect a very large random or necessarily representative sample of Cannabis Cautioning seizures. However, we did ensure the samples we obtained came from the major rural cannabis growing areas on the NSW north coast and the major urban areas of the state. Further, as both Cannabis Cautioning and Known Provenance samples were not required to be retained for criminal proceedings, we received and stored them soon after they were seized. The freshness of the samples is confirmed by the dominance of carboxylic acid forms of THC, CBD and CBG, and very low levels of CBN, the main oxidation product of THC. Given the known variability of THC within a single plant [3], it is possible that these results do not represent the “true” average potency of each plant as buds were used whenever possible from samples that were analyzed. However, there were strong positive correlations between the duplicate analyses for the samples. While these data are cross-sectional, the profile we reported is nevertheless highly consistent with that of international samples. Routine longitudinal monitoring, the analysis of larger samples of cannabis grown using known cultivation methods, and sampling from multiple parts of the plant would assist us in better understanding potency trends and the impacts of cultivation technique on cannabinoid profile.Cannabis Potency in AustraliaAcknowledgmentsApproval to obtain and analyse cannabis seizures was obtained from the NSW Police Service and we express our gratitude to Detective Superintendent Nicholas Bingham and his colleagues at NSW Police.Ially conferring reduced risks to mental wellbeing. There were relatively high levels of CBGtot (the precursor molecule to THC-A, CBD-A and CBC-A [32]) when compared to other trace phytocannabinoids, with CBG the second most abundant phytocannabinoid in the seized plant material. Research has found that CBG-A increases up to the twelfth week of cultivation (third week of flowering) and then decreases until the end of cultivation, while CBG increases all the way to the end of cultivation [44]. High CBG in seized cannabis plants may indicate that growers may be allowing their plants to mature before harvesting. As a weak partial agonist at cannabinoid type1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) receptors, a highly potent a2 adrenoceptor agonist, and a moderately potent serotonin-1A (5HT1A) antagonist [45], there may be a potential use for CBG as an antidepressant and analgesic [46]. We also found trace amounts of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid THC-V, which appears to have an antagonistic effect on CB1 receptors, displacing synthetic CB1 agonists CP55940 and WIN-55212 and attenuating the antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of THC in vivo [47]. However, the THC-V concentrations used to produce an antagonistic response are at least 100?000 times higher than what would be reasonably absorbed during smoking of a typical joint. CBC, 16985061 another trace non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid appears to modulate the effect of THC by inhibiting endocannabinoid cellular reuptake, and is also a potent activator of TRPA1 receptors, with apparent analgesic [48] and anti-inflammatory effects [49,50]. However, like CBD, the trend for maximising THC production may have led to marginalisation of CBC as historically, CBC has sometimes been reported to be the second or third most abundant cannabinoid [51]. Some limitations inherent in the data presented here should be acknowledged. Due to funding constraints we could not collect a very large random or necessarily representative sample of Cannabis Cautioning seizures. However, we did ensure the samples we obtained came from the major rural cannabis growing areas on the NSW north coast and the major urban areas of the state. Further, as both Cannabis Cautioning and Known Provenance samples were not required to be retained for criminal proceedings, we received and stored them soon after they were seized. The freshness of the samples is confirmed by the dominance of carboxylic acid forms of THC, CBD and CBG, and very low levels of CBN, the main oxidation product of THC. Given the known variability of THC within a single plant [3], it is possible that these results do not represent the “true” average potency of each plant as buds were used whenever possible from samples that were analyzed. However, there were strong positive correlations between the duplicate analyses for the samples. While these data are cross-sectional, the profile we reported is nevertheless highly consistent with that of international samples. Routine longitudinal monitoring, the analysis of larger samples of cannabis grown using known cultivation methods, and sampling from multiple parts of the plant would assist us in better understanding potency trends and the impacts of cultivation technique on cannabinoid profile.Cannabis Potency in AustraliaAcknowledgmentsApproval to obtain and analyse cannabis seizures was obtained from the NSW Police Service and we express our gratitude to Detective Superintendent Nicholas Bingham and his colleagues at NSW Police.

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