Control cells. As expected, TG significantly increased apoptosis in both control

Control cells. As expected, TG significantly increased apoptosis in both control or TCTP-siRNA treated cells, however, it was approximately 2.5-fold higher upon TCTP knockdown. The knockdown of TCTP was verified by qPCR for all experiments (data not shown). These data suggest that TCTP is involved in regulating apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.Knockdown of TCTP Decreases Colony Formation of LNCaP CellsAndrogen TA-02 chemical information regulation of TCTP expression, as presented above, suggested that it may have a role in growth of prostate cancer cells. This could either be through the induction of proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis, or a combination of both. To investigate the possible role of TCTP in cell growth, its expression was inhibited in LNCaP cells by siRNA treatment and colony formation was assessed compared with control siRNA treated cells. As shown in Figure 2A, TCTP protein expression was reduced by 85 after 72 h of transfection with siRNA targeting TCTP. Colony formation of TCTP knockdown cells was decreased by 50 compared with control cells (Figures 2B and 2C). These data indicated that TCTP may have a role in LNCaP cell proliferation and/or viability.Down-regulation of TCTP Results in Upregulation of Immune Response Genes in LNCaP CellsIn order to elucidate the pathways TCTP may affect in prostate cancer cells, we conducted a global gene expression profiling in TCTP knockdown cells compared with control LNCaP cells. Significant TCTP knockdown was confirmed at both mRNA andTCTP in Prostate Cancerprotein level (data not shown). The data were analyzed using two methods: the Statistical Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Feature Subset selection (FSS) tools implemented in J-Express [29]. Out of the 15 most significantly regulated genes determined by each analysis, nine were found to be significant by both methods, as illustrated in the Venn diagram in Figure 4A. Figure 4B shows up- or down-regulation of some of the genes, while a list over the most significantly regulated genes on the array, their ontology, known function and definition are depicted in Figure 4C. The majority of the genes LY-2409021 cost predicted to be significantly regulated upon TCTP knockdown are involved in the interferon signaling pathway and/or immune-related responses. The expression of six of these genes (IFIT1, SLITRK3, IFI44L, IFIT3, OAS2 and MX1) was validated by qPCR (Figures 5A ). These results imply that TCTP modulates immune responses in prostate cancer cells.Recombinant TCTP Induces Prostate Cancer Cell GrowthThe secreted form of TCTP has previously been shown to induce expression of several mediators, initiate distinct signaling events and lead to an increase in cell proliferation of immune cells [30?2]. Since TCTP is present in prostatic fluids [12], it may have an extracellular function in prostate cancer cells. To assess this possibility, we made recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) in E. coli and determined its biological activity in BEAS-2B cells compared with recombinant glutathione S-transferase (rGST) as a control [33]. BEAS-2B cells were treated with rTCTP or rGST at a final concentration of 1.0 mg/ml for 1 h and IL-8 mRNA production was determined by qPCR. IL-8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in cells treated with rTCTP compared to cells treated with rGST (Figure 6A) indicating that the rTCTP is biologically active. LNCaP cells were then treated with 1.0 mg/ml rTCTP or rGST and a colony formation assay was performed. After two weeks in culture with continuous e.Control cells. As expected, TG significantly increased apoptosis in both control or TCTP-siRNA treated cells, however, it was approximately 2.5-fold higher upon TCTP knockdown. The knockdown of TCTP was verified by qPCR for all experiments (data not shown). These data suggest that TCTP is involved in regulating apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.Knockdown of TCTP Decreases Colony Formation of LNCaP CellsAndrogen regulation of TCTP expression, as presented above, suggested that it may have a role in growth of prostate cancer cells. This could either be through the induction of proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis, or a combination of both. To investigate the possible role of TCTP in cell growth, its expression was inhibited in LNCaP cells by siRNA treatment and colony formation was assessed compared with control siRNA treated cells. As shown in Figure 2A, TCTP protein expression was reduced by 85 after 72 h of transfection with siRNA targeting TCTP. Colony formation of TCTP knockdown cells was decreased by 50 compared with control cells (Figures 2B and 2C). These data indicated that TCTP may have a role in LNCaP cell proliferation and/or viability.Down-regulation of TCTP Results in Upregulation of Immune Response Genes in LNCaP CellsIn order to elucidate the pathways TCTP may affect in prostate cancer cells, we conducted a global gene expression profiling in TCTP knockdown cells compared with control LNCaP cells. Significant TCTP knockdown was confirmed at both mRNA andTCTP in Prostate Cancerprotein level (data not shown). The data were analyzed using two methods: the Statistical Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) and Feature Subset selection (FSS) tools implemented in J-Express [29]. Out of the 15 most significantly regulated genes determined by each analysis, nine were found to be significant by both methods, as illustrated in the Venn diagram in Figure 4A. Figure 4B shows up- or down-regulation of some of the genes, while a list over the most significantly regulated genes on the array, their ontology, known function and definition are depicted in Figure 4C. The majority of the genes predicted to be significantly regulated upon TCTP knockdown are involved in the interferon signaling pathway and/or immune-related responses. The expression of six of these genes (IFIT1, SLITRK3, IFI44L, IFIT3, OAS2 and MX1) was validated by qPCR (Figures 5A ). These results imply that TCTP modulates immune responses in prostate cancer cells.Recombinant TCTP Induces Prostate Cancer Cell GrowthThe secreted form of TCTP has previously been shown to induce expression of several mediators, initiate distinct signaling events and lead to an increase in cell proliferation of immune cells [30?2]. Since TCTP is present in prostatic fluids [12], it may have an extracellular function in prostate cancer cells. To assess this possibility, we made recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) in E. coli and determined its biological activity in BEAS-2B cells compared with recombinant glutathione S-transferase (rGST) as a control [33]. BEAS-2B cells were treated with rTCTP or rGST at a final concentration of 1.0 mg/ml for 1 h and IL-8 mRNA production was determined by qPCR. IL-8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in cells treated with rTCTP compared to cells treated with rGST (Figure 6A) indicating that the rTCTP is biologically active. LNCaP cells were then treated with 1.0 mg/ml rTCTP or rGST and a colony formation assay was performed. After two weeks in culture with continuous e.

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