Ation of 37 pM PQ7, while the Late stage tumors had 1.1 nM

Ation of 37 pM PQ7, while the Late stage tumors had 1.1 nM PQ7 (Figure 5A). This indicates that the parent compound remained in the tumor for at least 48 hours after a 14 day treatment period with 7 IP injections.Pathological analysis of PyVT tumors post PQ7 treatmentHistopathological examination of the mammary tumors of PyVT mice was conducted for each treatment group in the three stages of tumor development. When present, tumors were 498-02-2 web categorized as adenoma/ mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN), early carcinoma, or late carcinoma. Adenoma/MIN involved expansion of acini and ducts by a proliferation of polygonal neoplastic epithelial cells with multifocal coalescence of the affected ducts and acini. Neoplastic cells exhibited minimal cellular atypia and a low mitotic index (0-2/40x field). The neoplastic proliferation was confined by the basement membrane and there was a lack of fibrous connective tissue within the 16574785 neoplasm. Early carcinomas were unencapsulated and moderately well-demarcated, with closely packed nests and acini of neoplastic cells with mild to moderate cellular atypia and 1-3 mitotic figures per high powered field. Neoplastic cells breached the basement membrane and were multifocally separated by a small to moderate amount of fibrovascular stroma. Late carcinomas were unencapsulated, poorly demarcated and invasive, composed of sheets of tightly packed nest and acini of neoplastic cells separated by moderate amounts of fibrovascular stroma. Anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were moderate and mitoses averaged 1-3/40x field. Adenosquamous carcinomas were late carcinomas with squamous differentiation. The Pre control tumors were either adenoma/MIN or early carcinomas; while the Pre PQ7-treated tumors appeared to be focal hyperplasias or adenoma/MIN and early carcinoma. The Early control tumors were all early carcinomas. The Early PQ7-treated tumors varied from adenoma/MIN, early carcinoma, and late carcinoma. The Late control and PQ7 tumors were both late carcinomas. In addition a few Late PQ7 tumorsThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomaFigure 2. Effect of PQ7 on connexin 43 expression in normal tissue. A) Immunohistochemisty of tissue sections. Paraffin-embedded sections stained with antibodies against the gap junction protein Cx43in female C57BL/6J organs harvested after a single IP injection of PQ7 (25 mg/kg) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Proteins staining: brown, counterstaining: blue (hematoxylin). Images represent only 1 of n = 6 per group at a 100X magnification. Scale bar = 10 . B) Graphical representation of western blot analysis examining the effect of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours of PQ7 treatment on the level of Cx43 expression. Mice without PQ treatment were used as a control. Bar graph shows the pixel intensities of protein bands normalized to the pixel intensities of loading control protein (actin) as a percentage of the control tissue. * P-value < 0.05 compared to control.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067174.gThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomaFigure 3. Tumor growth (mm3) in PyVT female mice. Tumors measured in two dimensions with calipers every 2 days prior to administration of treatment for 23977191 panels A and B) Pre, C and D) Early, and E and F) Late stages of tumor development. Panels A, C, and E) The tumor size is expressed over the 14 day treatment period for the DMSO (control) and PQ7 (25 mg/kg) treated PyVT mice. Days 0-12 represent the days of the 7 IP injections, day 14 Gracillin represents the end of the study with measu.Ation of 37 pM PQ7, while the Late stage tumors had 1.1 nM PQ7 (Figure 5A). This indicates that the parent compound remained in the tumor for at least 48 hours after a 14 day treatment period with 7 IP injections.Pathological analysis of PyVT tumors post PQ7 treatmentHistopathological examination of the mammary tumors of PyVT mice was conducted for each treatment group in the three stages of tumor development. When present, tumors were categorized as adenoma/ mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN), early carcinoma, or late carcinoma. Adenoma/MIN involved expansion of acini and ducts by a proliferation of polygonal neoplastic epithelial cells with multifocal coalescence of the affected ducts and acini. Neoplastic cells exhibited minimal cellular atypia and a low mitotic index (0-2/40x field). The neoplastic proliferation was confined by the basement membrane and there was a lack of fibrous connective tissue within the 16574785 neoplasm. Early carcinomas were unencapsulated and moderately well-demarcated, with closely packed nests and acini of neoplastic cells with mild to moderate cellular atypia and 1-3 mitotic figures per high powered field. Neoplastic cells breached the basement membrane and were multifocally separated by a small to moderate amount of fibrovascular stroma. Late carcinomas were unencapsulated, poorly demarcated and invasive, composed of sheets of tightly packed nest and acini of neoplastic cells separated by moderate amounts of fibrovascular stroma. Anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were moderate and mitoses averaged 1-3/40x field. Adenosquamous carcinomas were late carcinomas with squamous differentiation. The Pre control tumors were either adenoma/MIN or early carcinomas; while the Pre PQ7-treated tumors appeared to be focal hyperplasias or adenoma/MIN and early carcinoma. The Early control tumors were all early carcinomas. The Early PQ7-treated tumors varied from adenoma/MIN, early carcinoma, and late carcinoma. The Late control and PQ7 tumors were both late carcinomas. In addition a few Late PQ7 tumorsThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomaFigure 2. Effect of PQ7 on connexin 43 expression in normal tissue. A) Immunohistochemisty of tissue sections. Paraffin-embedded sections stained with antibodies against the gap junction protein Cx43in female C57BL/6J organs harvested after a single IP injection of PQ7 (25 mg/kg) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Proteins staining: brown, counterstaining: blue (hematoxylin). Images represent only 1 of n = 6 per group at a 100X magnification. Scale bar = 10 . B) Graphical representation of western blot analysis examining the effect of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours of PQ7 treatment on the level of Cx43 expression. Mice without PQ treatment were used as a control. Bar graph shows the pixel intensities of protein bands normalized to the pixel intensities of loading control protein (actin) as a percentage of the control tissue. * P-value < 0.05 compared to control.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067174.gThe effect of PQ7 on mammary carcinomaFigure 3. Tumor growth (mm3) in PyVT female mice. Tumors measured in two dimensions with calipers every 2 days prior to administration of treatment for 23977191 panels A and B) Pre, C and D) Early, and E and F) Late stages of tumor development. Panels A, C, and E) The tumor size is expressed over the 14 day treatment period for the DMSO (control) and PQ7 (25 mg/kg) treated PyVT mice. Days 0-12 represent the days of the 7 IP injections, day 14 represents the end of the study with measu.

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