Ated to the regulation of dopamine signaling (H) such as dopamine

Ated to the regulation of dopamine signaling (H) such as dopamine receptor D1A (DRD1A, encoded by Drd1a), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, encoded by Drd2), dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5, encoded by Drd5), solute carrier family 6, member 3 (SLC6A3, encoded by Slc6a3), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, encoded by Th), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, encoded by Comt) in the striatum. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A?C; n = 4, D; n = 6, E ; n = 4, H; n = 7). (PPTX)Figure S6 Total time of immobility and changes in DR offspring mice treated with vehicle (Vhe; saline) or therapeutic drugs in the forced swim test. As therapeutic drugs, we used fluoxetine (Flu), imipramine (Imi), and phenelzine (Phe). Each therapeutic drug was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the forced swim test. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 9?0). **p,0.01 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Figure S7 Gene expression related to the feeding regulation (A)dehydrogenase A (LDHA, encoded by Ldha), and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, encoded by Ldhb) in the hypothalamus. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A, B; n = 6?). (PPTX)Figure S8 The protein levels of AMPKa, p-AMPKa, and p-AMPKa/AMPKa ratio 16985061 in the hypothalamus (A ) and cortex (E ). Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A ; n = 5). (PPTX)Figure S9 The effect of 6-hour sleep deprivation on the mRNA expression of Ppara, Pparb, and Pparc in mouse brain. Open bars indicate control (Con) mice. Closed bars indicate sleep-deprived (SD) mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 6). *p,0.05 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Figure S10 Body weight at adulthood in offspring male (aged 32 weeks) and female (aged 28?4 weeks) mice. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 14?6). **p,0.01 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Table S1 List of gene-specific TaqMan probes and primers used for real-time RT-PCR. (PPTX) Protocol S1 Supplemental Methods.(DOC)and the regulation of glucose metabolism 23148522 (B) such as hexokinase 1 (HK1, encoded by Hk1), hexokinase 2 (HK2, encoded by Hk2), phosphofructokinase, muscle (PFKM, encoded by Pfkm), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (SLC2A1, encoded by Slc2a1), solute carrier family 2, member 3 (SLC2A3, encoded by Slc2a3), lactateAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HS. Performed the experiments: NS SC YN SH YI HF KK TS. Analyzed the data: NS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SC HF KK TS HS. Wrote the paper: HS NS.
Heavy metal pollution of the aquatic environment may be caused by natural and anthropogenic activities. Cadmium (Cd), one of the toxic heavy metals, enters aquatic organisms by their food and from the ambient environment through gills and epithelia where it is taken up through calcium channels of the plasma membrane of cells [1]. Cd not only induces DNA Epigenetics strand breaks, chromosome aberrations [2] and gene expression Autophagy alterations [3], but leads also to tissue damages [4?], morphological deformities [7], and even death [8]. The mechanisms of Cd damage are still insufficiently known. One aspect of cadmium toxicities is the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules [9]. In cells, there is a balance between ROS production and.Ated to the regulation of dopamine signaling (H) such as dopamine receptor D1A (DRD1A, encoded by Drd1a), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, encoded by Drd2), dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5, encoded by Drd5), solute carrier family 6, member 3 (SLC6A3, encoded by Slc6a3), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, encoded by Th), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, encoded by Comt) in the striatum. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A?C; n = 4, D; n = 6, E ; n = 4, H; n = 7). (PPTX)Figure S6 Total time of immobility and changes in DR offspring mice treated with vehicle (Vhe; saline) or therapeutic drugs in the forced swim test. As therapeutic drugs, we used fluoxetine (Flu), imipramine (Imi), and phenelzine (Phe). Each therapeutic drug was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the forced swim test. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 9?0). **p,0.01 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Figure S7 Gene expression related to the feeding regulation (A)dehydrogenase A (LDHA, encoded by Ldha), and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB, encoded by Ldhb) in the hypothalamus. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A, B; n = 6?). (PPTX)Figure S8 The protein levels of AMPKa, p-AMPKa, and p-AMPKa/AMPKa ratio 16985061 in the hypothalamus (A ) and cortex (E ). Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (A ; n = 5). (PPTX)Figure S9 The effect of 6-hour sleep deprivation on the mRNA expression of Ppara, Pparb, and Pparc in mouse brain. Open bars indicate control (Con) mice. Closed bars indicate sleep-deprived (SD) mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 6). *p,0.05 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Figure S10 Body weight at adulthood in offspring male (aged 32 weeks) and female (aged 28?4 weeks) mice. Open bars indicate AD mice. Closed bars indicate DR mice. Data represent means 6 SEM (n = 14?6). **p,0.01 indicates a significant difference. (PPTX) Table S1 List of gene-specific TaqMan probes and primers used for real-time RT-PCR. (PPTX) Protocol S1 Supplemental Methods.(DOC)and the regulation of glucose metabolism 23148522 (B) such as hexokinase 1 (HK1, encoded by Hk1), hexokinase 2 (HK2, encoded by Hk2), phosphofructokinase, muscle (PFKM, encoded by Pfkm), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (SLC2A1, encoded by Slc2a1), solute carrier family 2, member 3 (SLC2A3, encoded by Slc2a3), lactateAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: HS. Performed the experiments: NS SC YN SH YI HF KK TS. Analyzed the data: NS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SC HF KK TS HS. Wrote the paper: HS NS.
Heavy metal pollution of the aquatic environment may be caused by natural and anthropogenic activities. Cadmium (Cd), one of the toxic heavy metals, enters aquatic organisms by their food and from the ambient environment through gills and epithelia where it is taken up through calcium channels of the plasma membrane of cells [1]. Cd not only induces DNA strand breaks, chromosome aberrations [2] and gene expression alterations [3], but leads also to tissue damages [4?], morphological deformities [7], and even death [8]. The mechanisms of Cd damage are still insufficiently known. One aspect of cadmium toxicities is the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules [9]. In cells, there is a balance between ROS production and.

Leave a Reply