Truly extracellular systemic pathogen. In the event that S. suis fails

Truly extracellular systemic pathogen. In the event that S. suis fails to cause acute fatal septicemia, bacteria are able to reach the central nervous system via mechanisms that are only 10781694 partially elucidated. It has been reported that S. suis interacts with brain microvascular endothelial cells and the Hypericin web choroid plexus epithelial cells to breach the bloodbrain barrier [10,11]. Either in the bloodstream or at the central nervous system, S. suis will elicit a rapid and exaggerated inflammatory immune purchase Fexinidazole response that has been associated with mortality and clinical signs of the disease [12]. Interestingly, differences in virulence exist between S. suis serotype 2 strains isolated in North America (different STs, intermediate virulence), Europe (ST1, highly virulent) and the ST7 strain responsible for the STSLS outbreak in China (epidemic strain) [13]. Although the exact virulence factors involved in such differences are still poorly understood, their virulence degree has been suggested to correlate with their respective capacity to induce exaggerated inflammation [14]. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical sensors that activate the innate immune response [15,16]. Once microbial ligands bind to these receptors, downstream signal transduction pathways are activated resulting in the upregulation and suppression of manyTLR2-Independent Activation by S. suisgenes, leading to the release of many cytokines and chemokines responsible for inflammation and sometimes damage to the host. On the other hand, pathogen recognition by these receptors may be essential to prevent failure of the innate immune system to detect traces of microorganisms before systemic invasion [17]. In the case of S. suis, in vitro studies performed with heat-killed whole cells or live bacteria of classical ST1 European strains showed that TLR2 is mainly implicated in cell activation after stimulation of different murine and human cells [18,19]. More recently, in vitro studies carried out with the whole cells of the epidemic ST7 strain and human peripheral blood cells showed that not only TLR2 but also TLR6 and TLR9 play an important role on cell activation [20]. Since inflammation has been described as playing a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of the toxic shock-like syndrome caused by S. suis infection [3], it is then hypothesized that there are differences on the TLR2 in vivo activation pattern between strains of S. suis with different virulent potential. To investigate such hypothesis, mortality, bacterial load, and genes regulated in mice following experimental infections with either a highly virulent ST1 European strain or the Chinese epidemic ST7 strain were performed. Expression of important inflammatory mediators (proteins) was also measured. Results clearly showed a TLR2-dependent or -independent innate immune response depending on the strain responsible for the infection, suggesting different mechanisms of cell activation.Collection, homogenization and extraction of spleen total RNAAt 6 h p.i., spleens were removed, cut in pieces and put in 1.5 mL of RNAlater solution (Qiagen) for stabilization of total RNA. Approximately 25 mg of spleen was then disrupted and homogenized in 600 ml of lysis buffer (Qiagen) using a rotor stator homogenizer (Tissue-tearor model 398, Biospec products). Total RNA from homogenized tissue was isolated and purified using an RNeasy mini kit with on-column DNase digestion (Qiagen) and kept at -80uC.Illumina microarray analysisMicroarray exp.Truly extracellular systemic pathogen. In the event that S. suis fails to cause acute fatal septicemia, bacteria are able to reach the central nervous system via mechanisms that are only 10781694 partially elucidated. It has been reported that S. suis interacts with brain microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells to breach the bloodbrain barrier [10,11]. Either in the bloodstream or at the central nervous system, S. suis will elicit a rapid and exaggerated inflammatory immune response that has been associated with mortality and clinical signs of the disease [12]. Interestingly, differences in virulence exist between S. suis serotype 2 strains isolated in North America (different STs, intermediate virulence), Europe (ST1, highly virulent) and the ST7 strain responsible for the STSLS outbreak in China (epidemic strain) [13]. Although the exact virulence factors involved in such differences are still poorly understood, their virulence degree has been suggested to correlate with their respective capacity to induce exaggerated inflammation [14]. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical sensors that activate the innate immune response [15,16]. Once microbial ligands bind to these receptors, downstream signal transduction pathways are activated resulting in the upregulation and suppression of manyTLR2-Independent Activation by S. suisgenes, leading to the release of many cytokines and chemokines responsible for inflammation and sometimes damage to the host. On the other hand, pathogen recognition by these receptors may be essential to prevent failure of the innate immune system to detect traces of microorganisms before systemic invasion [17]. In the case of S. suis, in vitro studies performed with heat-killed whole cells or live bacteria of classical ST1 European strains showed that TLR2 is mainly implicated in cell activation after stimulation of different murine and human cells [18,19]. More recently, in vitro studies carried out with the whole cells of the epidemic ST7 strain and human peripheral blood cells showed that not only TLR2 but also TLR6 and TLR9 play an important role on cell activation [20]. Since inflammation has been described as playing a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of the toxic shock-like syndrome caused by S. suis infection [3], it is then hypothesized that there are differences on the TLR2 in vivo activation pattern between strains of S. suis with different virulent potential. To investigate such hypothesis, mortality, bacterial load, and genes regulated in mice following experimental infections with either a highly virulent ST1 European strain or the Chinese epidemic ST7 strain were performed. Expression of important inflammatory mediators (proteins) was also measured. Results clearly showed a TLR2-dependent or -independent innate immune response depending on the strain responsible for the infection, suggesting different mechanisms of cell activation.Collection, homogenization and extraction of spleen total RNAAt 6 h p.i., spleens were removed, cut in pieces and put in 1.5 mL of RNAlater solution (Qiagen) for stabilization of total RNA. Approximately 25 mg of spleen was then disrupted and homogenized in 600 ml of lysis buffer (Qiagen) using a rotor stator homogenizer (Tissue-tearor model 398, Biospec products). Total RNA from homogenized tissue was isolated and purified using an RNeasy mini kit with on-column DNase digestion (Qiagen) and kept at -80uC.Illumina microarray analysisMicroarray exp.

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